Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Pursuing Growth Opportunities in Business Sector Personal Statement

Pursuing Growth Opportunities in Business Sector - Personal Statement Example As far as my family background is concerned, I was the first in my family to complete a college education, not because I was smart, but because it was my ambition and I was passionate about it. For instance, I took advantage of the available opportunities in pursuit of my dream to become a patriotic soldier who would contribute to prosperity and well – being of my beloved nation. During my tenure at military quarters, I came across with hundreds of new things and worked with thousands of personnel from diverse cultural backgrounds and life experiences. I learned a lot in those years because I had to even work with many military officers; no matter I disliked them from the core of my heart. Nevertheless, patience and tolerance was the biggest lesson I received in the past 30 years in the military. I also pay tribute to my mother and am thankful to my siblings who laid the foundation in my life. My dearest mother and beloved siblings always trained, endorsed and motivated me to make my own decisions with confidence and to never get scared from any extremely challenging and tough assignments or jobs. Indeed, she portrayed a life of Godly and steady fast character. That was what I saw in her throughout life, which in fact, made the difference more than what she communicated and presented to me. My family members taught me not to just become a woman of success, ra ther a woman of value and character who is always extolled and commended. Apart from my dream to become an exalted army officer, I was also interested in university education, more specifically the business studies. I initially had plans to join a business school for a Masters in Business Administration (after college) but then I postponed the idea after multiple growth opportunities in the military. However, the lust and ever-rising internal desire for MBA compelled me to take retirement from the army after 31 years of service and active participation in the stability  of the USA.

Monday, October 28, 2019

Uc-Davis Case Essay Example for Free

Uc-Davis Case Essay Personal statement (250 words) Your Personal Statement provides an opportunity for you to share perspectives and experiences that you believe will be most informative as the Admissions Committee evaluates your candidacy and writing ability. Before settling in the city, my family was one of those rural families struggling to make a better life. I witnessed how my uncles were forced to become migrant workers. My cousins, therefore, became left-behind children. Unconsciously, my career vision stems from those memories. Now that I grew-up from a rustic kid to a well-educated girl, I intend to exhaust myself on creating values for rural families through my business specialty. Holding this determination, I studied to the top in my major and got a 3.76 junior GPA. Also, I demonstrated great enthusiasm in leadership experiences. â€Å"Rekindle†, the organization I cofounded and lead, now has 65 members and reached over 10,000 books sales volume. We donated all our profits to the charities. After 3-year professional study, I found the access point of my career path. Small to medium-sized rural business growth is an irresistible trend in China and it increased farmers’ income by establishing the relationship between farmers and outside markets. Actually, after the crisis in 2008, 850,000 Chinese migrant workers chose to return to their hometown and set-up village or township enterprises. But, deficiencies in entrepreneurial knowledge and financial services made those businesses vulnerable and professional helps are required. Thus, setting-up a world-class, China-based cooperation providing sustainable financial services for them has become my career objective. My cooperation will dedicate to create a reproducible pattern that empowers rural families to create values and transform themselves. Post-graduate accounting study is vital to making this a reality. And I believe MPA’s program in UC-davis is a great guide. I believe that with the top-notch academic environment, UC-davis My experiences as the cofounder of â€Å"Rekindle†, the class president and the vice administer of Student Union have fully stretched my communicational skills and leadership abilities. Born to be self-disciplined and having strong self-awareness, I know what I need are a top-notch academic education and a group of people sharing the same goal with me. I believe UC-davis is uniquely equipped to guide me toward my objectives. And a business degree is about more than spreadsheets and cash-flow analysis. I believe earning a MAcc’s degree will facilitated me find a reproducible pattern that empowering the rural families keep on transforming itself. Business is about creating and capturing value, whether its for a stockholder or a stakeholder. Not all value can be monetized, though, and at the Wake Forest Schools of Business, you’ll find students who work to create value for those who have never seen a boardroom. Finding a reproducible pattern that empowering the rural families keep on transforming and creating values themselves is what I desire for.

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Virtual Reality is more than Reality :: science

Virtual Reality is more than Reality The science of Virtual Reality has stated its presence in the media and now it is turning the eyes to see the new generation of games and 3D application. However, like the Art in the beginning of our modern society it needs to become much more matured than it has proven until now. The types of maturity that I want to talk about are the technology and its use. The technology that we have can be better used in the Virtual Reality fields, as well as the Virtual Reality can be better used as it is used today. In the old type of Virtual Reality, the scientist or the user was focusing more on the ideal image of the real world. Therefore, VR was more like a reflection of the real world or it was intend to be like that. This was in the beginnings! At that time, the technology and the devices were under-developed. They did not support much of high quality graphics and processor power to achieve the desired reflection of the real world nor the input devices. The obvious thing that the scientist or researcher was focusing was on the improvements of the techniques than how to use the technique. We can compare the stage with the early ages in the history of picture art. At that time, the artists were focusing on the technique of making the paintings increasingly accurate. The important outcome was how close was the picture to the real image of the world. After improving the technique, they shifted to more sophisticated techniques in which the outcome was not so much close to the real world but to other aspects of the imagination. The Virtual Reality evolution seems close to the idea presented above. We have now a good technique, and we have gained the technologies to support a good environment for Virtual Reality. What we need is a better usage than we have in our days. Which are: simulations, games and small virtual communities. However, is this all that we can get from this field? Is this all that Virtual Reality has to offer us? I don't think so. I think that it is about time to make research on new types of virtual realities than it was done so far. New types of features that can feed our imagination, feelings and senses much more than we can conceive in real world.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Advantage Ang Disadvantage of Animals in Captivity

1. INTRODUCTION Animals that live under human care are in captivity. Captivity can be used as a generalizing term to describe the keeping of either wild animals or domesticated animals such as livestock and pets. This may include for example farms, private and zoos. Keeping animals in human captivity and under human care can thus be distinguished between three primary categories according to the particular motives, objectives and conditions. The domestication of animals is the oldest documented instance of keeping animals in captivity.This process eventually resulted in habituation of wild animal species to survive in the company of, or by the labor of, human beings. Domesticated species are those whose behaviour, life cycle, or physiology has been altered as a result of their breeding and living conditions under human control for multiple generations. Throughout history not only domestic animals as pets and livestock were kept in captivity and under human care, but also wild animals . Some were failed domestication attempts.Also, in past times, primarily the wealthy, aristocrats and kings collected wild animals for various reasons. Contrary to domestication, the ferociousness and natural behaviour of the wild animals were preserved and exhibited. Today's zoos claim other reasons for keeping animals under human care: conservation, education and science. Should Animals be Released Back into the Wild or Kept in Captivity? Let us weigh the pros and cons of this issue, which seems to be on the rise. 2. THE ADVANTAGES OF ANIMALS IN CAPTIVITYThe advantage of animals in captivity is protecting the endangered wild animals, sometimes a species may have difficulties in surviving in the wild. Such as adapt helped a certain species of Dart Frog survives, when its habitat was destroyed by natural disaster. To prevent and preserve wild animals, from being captured by poachers for their skins, ivory and supposed medicinal purposes, zoos seem to be a safe for them. Furthermore, animals are provided with proper diet, exercise and enough space.Animals in captivity ensure the animals have enough food sources and proper medical facility. It is true that there have been zoos treating animals in a cruel manner. However, there is continuous improvement in their manner of working. It won't be fair to shut down all the zoos for mistakes committed by few zoos in the past. With reforms being brought about in this sector, animals are provided with proper diet and enough space. With a lot of study and training one might be able to provide proper diet and exercise to the animals.Moreover, the advantage of animals in captivity is education and conservation purpose. School visit to zoos to know more about endangered species and the way to conserve them. The zoo also provide detail and information of an animal's species, diet, and natural range. People can get familiar with animals education, information and knowledge. Zoos are in fact, trying to make people aware of thei r ecology. 3. THE DISADVANTAGES OF ANIMALS IN CAPTIVITY The disadvantage of animals in captivity is losing natural instinct, animal in captivity unable to hunt and survive in the wild.Without the opportunity to learn social organizations and habits, many animals in captivity are unable to nurture or care for the young. This matter was shown in the movie of Madagascar :Escape 2 Africa, the gang of animal Alex the Lion, Marty the Zebra, Melman the Giraffe and Gloria the Hippo all in a sudden, they escape from New York Zoo and land in the wilderness of Africa, where Alex meets the rest of his family, but he has trouble communicating with them after spending so much time at the Central Park Zoo.Now, as the animals reared in the safety of the zoo come into contact with their decidedly wild counterparts for the very first time, they get a better feel for their roots while marveling over the differences between life in the concrete jungle and life on the world's second largest continent. B esides this, animals in captivity are affected by extreme boredom, lack of appropriate exercise, poor quality food and a lack of variety of food, especially in poorly run facilities.Wild animals in captivity such as polar bear are being fed with dead fish and meat by trainers, unable to eat live fish. Animals lost their freedom and sense of Choice, stay in small cages, not a proper habitat for wild animals. For example the movie of the killer whale, the friendly whale was in a tank too small and in bad health because of that and other complications that come with being taken from its natural habitat to a place where it cannot meet its own needs.Lastly, some animals in captivity are forced to live with different climates and weather, such as penguin and polar bear. For example, a zoo in Indonesia, two polar bears lay on a concrete floor trying to stay cool in the tropical heat. At the Alaska Zoo, an elephant named Maggie was confined to a 146 square meter (1600-square foot) barn duri ng the winter. 4. CONCLUSION Now, take a moment to consider why you go to the zoo, the circus, or theme parks with animals.Is it to look at large animals like a spectator sport? Is your visit prompted by the lure of tiny baby animals? Do you go to learn about endangered species and did you read the signs which often provide little more information than an animal's species, diet, and natural range? And ask yourself, would you want someone to take you from your family and place you in a strange and unnatural surrounding for the sole purpose of entertainment? The debate over the topic of conservation of wildlife is an endless one.No doubt, efforts should be taken to study, protect and preserve animals; however care should be taken that animals suffer the least in the process. Moreover, it cannot be denied that some animals in captivity misuse and violate the animal rights. Creating awareness about animal rights and devising efficient ways to control their population is necessary. Conse rvation efforts should be undertaken considering a broader perspective of maintaining the ecological balance as a whole.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Fulfilling our Potential Essay

The different Definitions of education are misinterpreted in different ways, but there are still ways that you can interpret what you think the definition is on education. Education is to be able to find your own path. To have a high school diploma or to have a college degree, education is to be successful in your life in whatever way that is. Trying to define education is like trying to define why the sky is the color it is or why the grass is green, there is no accurate definition of education to me. Education can mean more than one thing having a college degree but also can mean not having a college degree. Being educated to me means to be successful in your life, just because you do not have a college degree doesn’t mean you will not go far in your life or make a good amount of money. People make it seem as if you don’t have a decent degree you will just work at a fast food restaurant. If someone were to ask me what it meant to be educated I wouldn’t be able to give them an answer. My mother Julie, went to the University Of Arkansas were she had completed law school. After completing law school she got a job at JB Hunt being a contract attorney. My father Carlos, who only has a high school diploma but works for a company called South Western Energy and is a company man for two rigs out in Pennsylvania where he is very successful in what he does. I don’t think you have to have a college diploma to be the most educated person around. Do I think you would make more amount of money in certain professions? Yes. Society makes it out to be that you must be admitted to a college to be educated, but really how educated do you have to be, to be admitted into a college. Back in the day it was a lot harder to get into a college, now-a-days you can score a fourteen through a sixteen and easily get into a college and just have to do remediation classes. Being tested for an ACT, SAT, Standardized test to me doesn’t show how educated you really are. Teachers teach you for the chapter they are covering than they either expect you to continue to remember what they taught you or you forget it. On the standardized test or the A T or SAT there is information that you were taught in younger grades or that you haven’t been taught yet. So technically it really isn’t showing how educated a person may really be. Life its self-offers you an education. This lesson of education is more a hard learning education. ‘The best way to predict your future is to create It.’- Abraham Lincoln. You are not taught in school how to balance a check book, how to cook, how to pay taxes, or how to do major things in the real world. Sooner or later you will get to the point that you will graduate for high school, get your GED or even drop out, but there will come a time that you will leave your parents’ house, which then you will have to find your own path in the real world. Unless you were taught by your parents or other adults how to balance a check book, how to cook, how to pay taxes, or how to do things in the real world you won’t be an educated person on how to go about life. In life there will be times that you will come to points in life that will you will see how educated you are, or when there is times that you need to speak up or when you need to go ahead and back off from the situation. People are different and learn in many different ways some faster than others and some who remember everything easily or some who forget stuff by the time class is over. Being knowledgeable in one subject and not in the other is that consider too make someone less knowledgeable or less comprehensive than another person. When going through college to earn a degree depending on what we want to major in we aren’t taught certain subjects. When majoring in anything in the medical field you aren’t taught any type of histories because you don’t need to know it. When you want to become a history major you aren’t taught any sciences because you don’t and won’t need them. If someone was to walk up to someone and try and have a conversation with them about a certain subject or ask them for some type of help on a certain subject but the other person isn’t able to have a conversation back because they aren’t taught that subject or haven’t been taught that subject does that make them any less educated than the person asking for help. There will always be some one that is always smarter or believes to be smarter than you, but really how can you tell how smart someone is. Being successful to me is a huge part of being educated. When knowing people who have a good degree and do not do anything with their degree and make bad choices in their life and not care what anyone thinks isn’t a successful and well educated person. When you are living on the streets and have a good degree you could go and find a job even if it means starting at a fast food restaurant and working your way to the top to get a job for what your degree is. It may take time but no reason to just sit around and waste a well-educated mind as society would say. There may be as many definitions as there are defines, but it is important for people to have a clear understand of education in order to be able to define it to other people on what your beliefs are and what it means to be a well-educated person. Lincoln, Abraham. â€Å"Education Quotes – Edgalaxy.† Edgalaxy. Techzoo, 2009-2013. Web. 17 Sept. 2013.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Smu I Year Hrm Exam Notes Essay Example

Smu I Year Hrm Exam Notes Essay Example Smu I Year Hrm Exam Notes Essay Smu I Year Hrm Exam Notes Essay Explain the objectives and process of HRP? Human resource planning or manpower planning is essentially the predetermine process of getting the right number of qualified people into the right job at the right time. In Other Words Human resource planning is a process by which an organization should move from its current manpower position to its desired manpower position.Through planning, management strikes to have the right number and right kinds of people, at the right places, at the right time, doing things which result in both the organization and the individual receiving maximum long-run benefit. Process of HRP: 1. Assessing Human Resources The assessment of HR begins with environmental analysis, under which the external (PEST) and internal (objectives, resources and structure) are analyzed to assess the currently available HR inventory level. 2. Demand Forecasting HR forecasting is the process of estimating demand for and supply of HR in an organization.Demand forecasting is a process of determining future needs for HR in terms of quantity and quality. 3. Supply Forecasting Supply is another side of human resource assessment. It is concerned with the estimation of supply of manpower given the analysis of current resource and future availability of human resource in the organization. 4. Matching Demand and Supply It is another step of human resource planning. It is concerned with bringing the forecast of future demand and supply of HR. The matching process refers to bring demand and supply in an equilibrium position so that shortages and over staffing position will be solved. . Action Plan It is the last phase of human resource planning which is concerned with surplus and shortages of human resource. Under it, the HR plan is executed through the designation of different HR activities. The major activities which are required to execute the HR plan are recruitment, selection, placement, training and development, socialization etc. Objectives of HRP: 1. To recruit and maintain the HR of requisite quantity and quality. 2. To predict the employee turnover and make the arrangements for minimizing turnover and filing up of consequent vacancies. 3.To meet the requirements of the programs of expansion, diversification etc. 4. To anticipate the impact of technology on work, existing employees and future human resource requirements. 5. To progress the knowledge, skill, standards, ability and discipline etc. 6. To appraise the surplus or shortage of human resources and take actions accordingly. 7. To maintain pleasant industrial relations by maintaining optimum level and structure of human resource. 8. To minimize imbalances caused due to non-availability of human resources of right kind, right number in right time and right place. . To make the best use of its human resources; and 10. To estimate the cost of human resources. Q2. What are the factors affecting recruitment? What are the sources of recruitment? Definition of Recruitment: The process of finding and hiring the best-qualified candidate (from within or outside of an organization) for a job opening, in a timely and cost effective manner. The recruitment process includes analyzing the requirements of a job, attracting employees to that job, screening and selecting applicants, hiring, and integrating the new employee to the organization.The recruitment function of the organizations is affected and governed by a mix of various internal and external forces. The internal forces or factors are the factors that can be controlled by the organization. And the external factors are those factors which cannot be controlled by the organization. The internal and external forces affecting recruitment function of an organization are: Internal Factors 1. Size of the organization Recruitment process is affected by the size of the organization to a large extent. Experience suggests that larger organizations recruits more candidates than small ones. . Recruiting Policy The recruitment policy of the firm also affects the recruitment process. This policy is concerned with candidates from outside the organization, whereas others want to recruit from internal sources. 3. Image of the organization Image or goodwill of the organization also affects the recruitment. Organizations having good image can attract potential and competent candidates to a large extent. 4. Image of job Jobs having good image in terms of better remuneration, working condition, promotion, career development opportunities etc. an attract the potential and qualified candidates to a large extent. External Factors 1. Demographic factors A demography is the study of human population in terms of age, sex, occupation, religion, composition, ethnicity etc. The demographic factors have profound influence on recruitment process. 2. Labor market Labor market constitutes the force of demand and supply of labor of particular importance. For instance, if demand for a particular skill is high relative to its supply, the recruitment process evolves more efforts. Contrary to it, if supply is more than demand, the recruitment process will be easier. . Unemployment situations Unemployment rate of particular area is yet another influencing factor of recruitment process. If the unemployment rate is high, the recruitment process will be simpler and vice versa. 4. Social and political environment The forces of social and political environment also influence recruitment policy. For instance, the change in government can have a direct impact upon recruitment policy of the company due to change in government rules and regulations. Sources of Recruitment The different sources of recruitment are classified into two categories, viz.Internal: sources of recruitment are from within the organization. External: sources of recruitment are from outside the organization. Internal Sources 1. Promotions Promotion means to give a higher position, status, salary and responsibility to the employee. So, the vacancy can be filled by promoting a suitable candidate from the same organization. 2. Transfers Transfer means a change in the place of employment without any change in the position, status, salary and responsibility of the employee. 3. Internal Advertisements Here, the vacancy is advertised within the organization.The existing employees are asked to apply for the vacancy. External Sources 1. Public Advertisements The Personnel department of a company advertises the vacancy in newspapers, the internet, etc. This advertisement gives information about the company, the job and the required qualities of the candidate. 2. Campus Recruitment The organization conducts interviews in the campuses of Management institutes and Engineering Colleges. Final year students, whore soon to get graduate, are interviewed. Suitable candidates are selected by the organization based on their academic record, communication skills, intelligence, etc. . Recommendations The organization may also recruit candidates based on the recommendations received from existing managers or from sister companies. Q3. What are the main objectives of training? Explain on-the job and off the job training? Training is a learning process that involves the acquisition of knowledge, sharpening of skills, concepts, rules, or changing of attitudes and behaviors to enhance the performance of employees whereas development is the act of improving by expanding or enlarging or refining and future growth. Objective of Training To impart basic knowledge and skill to new entrants required for intelligent performance of definite task in order to induct them without much loss of time. To assist employees to function more effectively by exposure of latest concepts information and techniques and development of skills required in specific fields including production, purchase, marketing, logistics, information technology etc. To broaden minds of supervisors. Sometimes, narrowness of outlook may arise in supervisors because of specialization. In order to correct this narrowness they are provided with opportunities and interchange of experience. To build second line of competent employees and enable them to occupy more responsible positions as situation emerge. To prepare employees to undertake different jobs in order to enable redeployment and maintain flexibility in workforce so that ever changing environment of market can be met and downturns can be managed without losing experienced employees. To provide employees job satisfaction, training enables an employee to use their skill, knowledge and ability to fullest extent and thus experience job satisfaction and gain monetary benefits from enhanced productivity. To improve knowledge, skills, efficiency of employees to obtain maximum individual development. To fulfill goals of organization by securing optimum co-operation and contribution from the employees. On the Job-Training On-the-job training is training that takes place while employees are actually working. It means that skills can be gained while trainees are carrying out their jobs. This benefits both employees and the business. Employees learn in the real work environment and gain experience dealing with the tasks and challenges that they will meet during a normal working day. The business enefits by ensuring that the training is specific to the job. It also does not have to meet the additional costs of providing off-the-job training or losing working time. Methods of providing on-the-job training Coaching – An experienced member of staff will help trainees learn skills and processes through providing instructions or demonstrations (or both). Mentoring – Each trainee is allocated to an established member of staff who acts as a guide and helper. A mentor usually offers more personal support than a coach, although the terms mentor’ and coach’ are often used interchangeably. Job rotation – This is where members of staff rotate roles or tasks so that they gain experience of a full range of jobs. Sitting next to Nellie’ – This describes the process of working alongside a colleague to observe and learn the skills needed for a particular process. Off the Job-Training Off-the-job training is provided away from the immediate workplace. This might be at a specialist training center or at a college or at a company’s own premises. This type of training can be particularly useful for developing transferable skills that can be used in many different parts of the business.It may be used, for example, to train employees in the use of new equipment and new methods or to bring them up to date with changes in the law. Methods of providing off-the-job training Lecture In lecture method trainers used to communicate with spoken words which they want the trainees to learn, it is primarily one way communication of learned capabilities from trai ner to audience. Audio Visual Techniques Audio visual instruction includes overheads, slides and video. Video can be used for improving communication skills and customer service skills, it can also illustrate how procedures can be followed. Simulations It represents real life situations regarding trainees decisions resulting in outcomes that reflects what would happen if they were on the job. Simulations allow trainees to see impact of their decisions in an artificial, risk free environment. Case Studies This method involves studying cases from all perspectives, analyzing the various options available to the company for solving problems or address issues and arriving at most suitable answers. Q4. Define performance management. Write a brief note on 360 degree appraisal?Performance Management Performance management is the process of creating a work environment or setting in which people are enabled to perform to the best of their abilities. Performance management is a whole work system that begins when a job is defined as needed. It ends when an employee leaves your organization. Many writers and consultants are using the term performance management as a substitution for the traditional appraisal system. I encourage you to think of the term in this broader work system context.Meaning of 360 Degree Appraisal An appraisal made by top management, immediate superior, peers, subordinates, self and customers is called 360 Degree Appraisal. Here, the performance of the employee or manager is evaluated by six parties, including himself. So, he gets a feedback of his performance from everyone around him. This method is very reliable because evaluation is done by many different parties. These parties are in the best position to evaluate the employee or manager because they are continuously interacting and working with him.This method is mostly used to evaluate the performance of the employees. However, it is also used to evaluate other qualities such as talents, behavior, values, ethical standards, tempers, loyalty, etc. Six Parties in 360 Degree Appraisal Top Management Immediate Superior Peers / Co-workers Subordinates Self-Appraisal Customers 360 degree feedback appraisal The 360 degree feedback appraisal systems collect information from a variety of people with whom the employee has frequent contact.The evaluation asks each participant questions about the employee’s behavior across a broad array of job related competencies. Its confidential nature and broad perspective make this appraisal tool more credible to many employees than traditional performance appraisal systems. Significance The performance evaluations utilize multiple anonymous sources to obtain honest feedback regarding an employee’s performance. The anonymous nature and multiple sources make the final findings harder to ignore.If an employee receives the same or similar feedback from the multiple sources, he cannot simply brush it off as an anomaly. Criteria Assessed The 360 degree appraisal process assesses the skills, behavior and knowledge of the employee, usually a manager. More specifically, the survey questions on knowledge assess how well the employee knows his job, the company and the industry in general. The skills portion evaluates the employee’s time management and organization skills, communication skills, specific job competencies and customer satisfaction. TrainingParticipants in the evaluation process should receive training regarding the interpretation of survey questions, the importance of confidentiality and the importance of complete honesty in ratings. Proper training of evaluators is critical to the success and validity of the 360 degree appraisal system. Planning Employees must view the performance appraisal process as credible and valid for the results to have any positive impact on their future performance. Warning The 360 degree feedback performance appraisal process works best when survey questions are customized to the company using it.Human resources can purchase pre-made, generic questions, but these often do not collect information relevant to that company’s specific operations. Q5. What is meant by job analysis? Explain its purpose and methods? Job Analysis Job analysis is the process of analyzing jobs. It is very broad concept. Therefore Before describing the meaning and nature of the job analysis, it is important to discuss about the meaning of the job. Job- job is the bundle of related task. For example, inspecting resume of a job seeker is a task. The whole lot of tasks relating to recruitment constitutes job.Job Analysis- it is the process of collecting job related information. Such information helps in the preparation of job description and job specification. There are two outcomes of job analysis: Job description Job specification Job Description- it indicates what all a job involves. For example, job title, location, job summary, duties machine, tools, equipment’s, material and forms used, supervision given and received and working conditions. Job Specification- the capabilities that the job holder should possess form part of job specification.For example, education, training, experience, judgment, initiative, physical effort, physical skills, communication skills and emotional characteristics. Purpose of Job Analysis Job Analysis plays an important role in recruitment and selection, job evaluation, job designing, deciding compensation and benefits packages, performance appraisal, analyzing training and development needs, assessing the worth of a job and increasing personnel as well as organizational productivity. Recruitment and Selection: Job Analysis helps in determining what kind of person is required to perform a particular job.It points out the educational qualifications, level of experience and technical, physical, emotional and personal skills required to carry out a job in desired fashion. The objective is to fit a right person at a right place. Performance Analysis: Job analysis is done to check if goals and objectives of a particular job are met or not. It helps in deciding the performance standards, evaluation criteria and individual’s output. On this basis, the overall performance of an employee is measured and he or she is appraised accordingly. Training and Development: Job Analysis can be used to assess the training and development needs of employees. The difference between the expected and actual output determines the level of training that need to be imparted to employees. It also helps in deciding the training content, tools and equipment’s to be used to conduct training and methods of training. Compensation Management: Of course, job analysis plays a vital role in deciding the pay packages and extra perks and benefits and fixed and variable incentives of employees.After all, the pay package depends on the position, job title and duties and responsibilities involved in a job Job Designing and Redesigning: The main purpose of job analysis is to streamline the human efforts and get the best possible output. It helps in designing, redesigning, enriching, evaluating and also cutting back and adding the extra responsibilities in a particular job. This is done to enhance the employee satisfaction while increasing the human output. Job Analysis Methods Most Common Methods of Job Analysis are: Observation Method: A job analyst observes an employee and records all his performed and non-performed task, fulfilled and un-fulfilled responsibilities and duties, methods, ways and skills used by him or her to perform various duties and his or her mental or emotional ability to handle challenges and risks. However, it seems one of the easiest methods to analyze a specific job but truth is that it is the most difficult one. Why? Let’s Discover. It is due to the fact that every person has his own way of observing things.Different people think different and interpret the findings in different ways. Therefore, the process may involve personal biasness or likes and dislikes and may not produce genuine results. This error can be avoided by proper training of job analyst or whoever will be conducting the job analysis process. This particular method includes three techniques: direct observation, Work Methods Analysis and Critical Incident Technique. The first method includes direct observation and recording of behavior of an employee in different situations.The second involves the study of time and motion and is specially used for assembly-line or factory workers. The third one is about identifying the work behaviors that result in performance. Interview Method: In this method, an employee is interviewed so that he or she comes up with their own working styles, problems faced by them, use of particular skills and techniques while performing their job and insecurities and fears about their careers. This method helps interviewer know what exactly an employee thinks about his or her own job and responsibilities involved in it.It involves analysis of job by employee himself. In order to generate honest and true feedback or collect genuine data, questions asked during the interview should be carefully decided. And to avoid errors, it is always good to interview more than one individual to get a pool of responses. Then it can be generalized and used for the whole group. Questionnaire Method: Another commonly used job analysis method is getting the questionnaires filled from employees, their superiors and managers. However, this method also suffers from personal biasness.A great care should be takes while framing questions for different grades of employees. Q6. What are the benefits and objectives of employee welfare measures? Employee welfare means anything done for intellectional physical moral and economic betterment of the workers, whether by employers, by Government or by other agencies, over and above what is laid down by law, or what is normally expected on the part of the contracted benefits for which workers may have bargained. Following features of employee welfare can be identified:Employee welfare is a comprehensive term including various services, facilities and amenities provided to employees for their betterment. Welfare measures are in addition to regular wages and other economic benefits available to employees under legal provisions and collective bargaining. Welfare measures may be provided not only by employers but by the government, trade unions and other agencies too. The basic purpose of employee welfare is to improve the lot of the working class and thereby make a worker a good employee and a happy citizen.Employee welfare is an essential part of social welfare. It involves adjustment of an employee’s work life and family life to the community or social life. Employee welfare measures are also known as fringe benefits and services. Benefits of Employee Welfare Compliance As a business owner, you are required by law to provide certain benefits for the welfare of your employees. You have to match the Social Security taxes your employees pay and obtain a workers compensation insurance policy. If ou terminate an employee, you have to provide Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) funds to extend his health insurance. Recruitment and Retention The benefits an employee receives from his employer for his welfare are often a significant reason why he decides to accept a job offer. As such, providing employee benefits allows you to compete with other businesses to recruit and retain qualify employees. If other employers offer better benefits, good employees may choose to go there. Employees Well-BeingBy providing a plan thats good for employees welfare, you show them that you value them. This can help make them feel welcome and happy in your company, motivating them to work harder. If your health plan has wellness coverage and preventative care, employees are more likely to stay healthy, cutting down on absenteeism and sick days. Company Image Providing a good employee welfare plan reflects well on your business, building a good company image. It may even earn you some press coverage, giving you free publicity to improve awareness among potential customers.This may boost your sales and increase your profits. Objectives of Employee Welfare Production One of the primary concerns of employee welfare promotion is to create happy employees. However, this type of objective has a greater purpose and is not always due to the benevolence of the employer. Instead, good employers both genuinely care for their employees and do so because they know that a happy employee is one that will be productive and do his job correctly. In careers ike sales where production is essential to making money, employers who promote employee welfare know that employees will make more money for themselves and for the company. Loyalty Another reason to promote the well-being of an employee is that it can improve employee loyalty. In the long run, employees who are taken care of by their employers are less likely to jump ship and change companies or careers. Even in situations where it might be possible to make more money with a different company, the employee who feels accepted and needed by their employer may not even consider other job offers when they come along.Organizational Improvement Because employee welfare deals specifically with the well-being of employees, employee welfare programs adopted by employers are more effective when the wants and wishes of employees are taken into consideration. In organizations where employees are well-cared for and employees are asked to provide suggestions as to how to better improve the company, employees feel as if they play an important role in the improvement of the organization. HealthHealth promotion is another major objective of most employee welfare programs. Prior to the rise of labor unions in the United States, most employees did not have health insurance or any type of programs to promote preventative health measures. However, the health of an employee is integral to the success of a company. Employees who are happy and healthy show up to work every day and do their jobs correctly, whereas those that are in poor health and have no means to change the situation will miss work and slow production.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Mark Twain1 essays

Mark Twain1 essays Mark Twain, Samuel Clemens, or None of the Above? Mark Twain was one of the most popular and well-known authors of the 1800s. He is recognized for being a humorist. He used humor or social satire in his best works. His writing is known for realism of place and language, memorable characters, and hatred of hypocrisy and oppression (Mark Twain 1). Mark Twain was born Samuel Langhorne Clemens on November 30, 1835. He was born on the Missouri frontier in a small log village called Florida. His parents had come to Florida from their former home in Tennessee (Unger 192). When Clemens was four, he moved with his family to Hannibal, Missouri, a port on the Mississippi River (Mark Twain 1). His father, who had studied law in Kentucky, was a local magistrate and small merchant (Unger 193). When Samuel was twelve, his father died. He was then apprenticed to two local printers (Unger 193). When he was sixteen, Clemens began setting type for the local newspaper Hannibal Journal, which his older brother Orion managed (Mark Twain 1). In 1853, when Samuel was eighteen, he left Hannibal for St. Louis (Unger 194). There he became a steam boat pilot on the Mississippi River. Clemens piloted steamboats until the Civil War in 1861. Then he served briefly with the Confederate army (Mark Twain 1). In 1862 Clemens became a reporter on the Territorial Enterprise in Virginia City, Nevada. In 1863 he began signing his articles with the pseudonym Mark Twain, a Mississippi River phrase meaning two fathoms deep (Bloom 43). In 1865, Twain reworked a tale he had heard in the California gold fields, and within months the author and the story, The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County, had become national sensations (Bloom 47). In 1867 Twain lectured in New York City, and in the same year he visited Europe and Palestine. He wrote of these travels in The Innocents Abroad. This book exaggerated ...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Greek Idiots - Democracy and Voting - Myth vs Fact

Greek Idiots - Democracy and Voting - Myth vs Fact In ancient Greece, the inventors of democracy set up a law that required every person to vote, regardless of who they voted for. If anyone was found not voting, the person would be publicly marked and labeled an idiot, someone who thought their own personal needs trumped those of the society around them, and over time, the word idiot has evolved into todays usage. -Â   Isaac DeVille, Michigan State columnist It just isnt true that all Greeks or even all citizens of Athens were required to vote, and its not true on many levels. Only males (free and, originally, propertied; later, also born to two Athenian-born parents) could become citizens.Only citizens could vote.These potentially voting citizens were limited to those without a personal or inherited mark (atimia) against them.In addition, whats true about one period of democracy is not necessarily true of another. 1275a: 22-23: A citizen defined in simple terms is someone who can participate in judging [that is, serve as a juror in the court system] and in governing [that is, serve in public office, which here means not just magistracies but also serving in the assembly and on the council in systems of government that have these institutions]. Stoa Project Aristotle Politics Male Athenian citizens actively participated, but voting was only a part of what was meant by democracy. Speaking well and being physically present in the communal life were crucial.The Athenian assembly, which held 6000 citizens, decided most of the issues.Citizen-orators persuaded their fellow citizen-voters.The voting itself could be conducted by a show of hands, as is seen Aristophanes comedy Ecclesiazousai, where Praxagora describes the voting in the Assembly:Its difficult; yet it must be done, and the arm shown naked to the shoulder in order to vote.Officials chose the winner based on a visual estimate of the majority of hands. They certainly werent counting exactly enough to make sure there were 6000 hands on 6000 discrete bodies. Sometimes more secretive ballots were used small, colored balls placed in urns. 6000 was not the entire citizen body, although it was a hefty portion.A body of 6000 citizens served as juries, meeting about half the days of the year, with each of the ten tribes providing its required share.A lottery selected the 400 or 500 men for the third governmenta l group, called the boule. Steven Kreis The Athenian Origins of Direct Democracy explains the idiot reference in the student newspaper: At Athens, a citizen who held no official position or who was not a habitual orator in the Assembly was branded as idiotai. This is a far cry from calling the non-voter an idiot. Idiotai is also used to distinguish the common people from the poor (penetes) and the more powerful (dynatoi). Idiotai is also used for unskilled worker. While we dont know what the population figures are for ancient Athens, and it changed over time, if there were say, 30,000 male citizens, more than a third of them were actively involved in politics at times. If we followed the Athenian example, who would feed, house, clothe, educate, and medicate the families of the politicians? Pay for time spent fulfilling the civic obligation was at first non-existent. Aristotle has several passages in his Politics explaining why. Here is one: 1308b: 31-33: It is of the greatest importance in all systems of government to have laws and the rest of governmental administration so arranged that magistrates cannot profit financially from their offices. There is a passage from a work ascribed to Aristotle in a section about Solon that probably led to the columnists idea. It comes from Constitution section 8: Further, [Solon] saw the state often engaged in internal disputes, while many of the citizens from sheer indifference accepted whatever might turn up, he made a law with express reference to such persons, enacting that any one who, in a time civil factions, did not take up arms with either party, should lose his rights as a citizen and cease to have any part in the state. Although not the last word that could be said on the issue, modern Americans are not like classical Athenians. We neither live our lives in public nor do we all want to be politicians (although neither did Socrates, even though he sat on the Athenian Boule). Requiring us to be penalized for failing to go to the polling booths andmake choices on the ballot once every 4 years because thats what they did in the birthplace of democracy misses the point of the ancient Greek democratic process. Further Reading on Greek Voting and Idiots The Tradition of the Athenian Democracy A. D. 1750-1990, Mogens Herman Hansen Greece Rome, 2nd Ser., Vol. 39, No. 1. (Apr., 1992), pp. 14-30.The Athenian Assembly in the Age of Demosthenes, Mogens Herman Hansen. Review author: Phillip Harding Phoenix, Vol. 44, No. 2. (Summer, 1990), pp. 199-200.The Ten Archontes of 579/8 at Athens, Thomas J. Figueira Hesperia, Vol. 53, No. 4. (Oct. - Dec., 1984), pp. 447-473.The Duration of a Meeting of the Athenian Ecclesia, Mogens Herman Hansen. Classical Philology, Vol. 74, No. 1. (Jan., 1979), pp. 43-49.Christopher W. Blackwell, The Assembly, in C.W. Blackwell, ed., DÄ“mos: Classical Athenian Democracy (A. Mahoney and R. Scaife, edd., The Stoa: a consortium for electronic publication in the humanities []) edition of March 26, 2003. More of Democracy Then and Now Part 1: IntroductionPart 2: AristotlePart 3: ThucydidesPart 4: PlatoPart 5: AeschinesPart 6: IsocratesPart 7: HerodotusPart 8: Pseudo-XenophonPart 9: Q. Were All Ancient Greeks Required to Vote or Risk Being Labeled Idiots?

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Family Belief Systems Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Family Belief Systems - Essay Example They also remind them the meaning behind the adversities they face thus making it easy for them to face the difficulties as a family. Additionally, rules that families comply with create and encourage a sense of unity within the family unit. The laws dictate the family beliefs and family members are expected to follow. Parents dictate various concepts to children which consequently the children follow to be true. Family laws are not necessary developed and encouraged by the authorities but rater by the leaders in a family. Loyalty in the family is also encouraged based on the fact that it promotes and provides the family with a positive outlook. Family members use verbal or non verbal communication to explain the right or wrong choices made by other family members. Resilience is inhibited in case one family member goes against what is expected of them. It is therefore mandatory to encourage family

A Research on Case Study of ARM Holdings Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

A Research on Case Study of ARM Holdings - Essay Example It operates in a moderately high competitive industry with strong players such as Intel, Toshiba, Samsung, and others (Tibken, 2011). The Industry Life cycle indicates that it is still enjoying growth and would continue to do so for the next decade or so. ARM Holdings tends to follow a market penetration strategy in order to increase the number of ARM chips in most of the consumer electronics items. The company has appeared to be following a narrow differentiation strategy but it is not trying to appeal to broader segments. Its intelligent positioning in the market with its unique business model has allowed ARM to generate a stable stream of cash flows with royalties and remain at an advantage in the future of economic uncertainty. Furthermore, its competitive advantage of being designing energy efficient chips is most likely to provide ARM much advantage as energy efficiency and ethical consumerism become topics that are more prominent (Crossan, et al., 2011, p. 241). Introduction S ince the year 1990, the year in which it was founded, ARM Holdings has shipped over 25 billion chips to companies and customers all over the world with the help of its 250 partners. ARM has licensed them its chips over 750 times. With design centers in India, US, UK, Sweden, Norway, Japan, France and other countries, the company now distinguishes itself as the world’s leading semiconductor intellectual property supplier (ARM Holdings, 2012a). This paper is an attempt to conduct a strategic analysis of ARM Holdings by looking at its industry structure and strategies employed. The paper would do the same with the help of different tools and frameworks such as Porter Five Forces Model, Industry Lifecycle Model, Porter Generic Strategies, and others. This section of the paper introduced ARM Holdings and explained the rationale of the paper. The second section of the paper would conduct a brief analysis of the semi conductor industry in order to capture a glance of the industry en vironment. The third section or chapter would aim to explore the strategy or strategies employed by ARM Holdings and the degree to which they are a perfect match. Furthermore, the section would also present a few recommendations for future strategies that could be employed by ARM Holdings. The paper would conclude by commenting on the sustainability and viability of ARM Holdings’ strategy and business model in the future. Analysis of the Industry structure of Semiconductor Industry The semiconductor industry enjoys an interesting industry life cycle, which has been going back and forth between the growth and maturity stage. The semiconductor industry is such that new chips, designs, and models become obsolete or out of demand very quickly, sometimes that is only a few weeks (Kipley and Lewis, 2011, p. 36). Therefore, whenever companies launch a new model, they attain quick growth however; the model soon dies in terms of demand pushing the industry to maturity. However, just w hen the industry is about to be pushed towards decline, the players would come up with new designs or models in order to bring back

Friday, October 18, 2019

McDonald and the Stella Liebeck Scalding Case Study

McDonald and the Stella Liebeck Scalding - Case Study Example McDonalds further maintained that this temperature was essential in maintaining optimum taste in the coffee, a feature most customers â€Å"prefer† to their safety. The court, while holding that McDonalds was largely responsible for the burns Stella Liebeck received from the scalding coffee moved to acknowledge that the plaintiff was partly responsible for her injuries. They based this decision on comparative negligence and the fact that the warning on the coffee was not sufficient. A company should be responsible for most but not all of the consequences of consumers using its products. The first reason why any company should be ware of consumers’ affairs is the fact that consumers are also stakeholders. In the realm of business, in most cases, consumers are secondary stakeholders. However, consumer’s intermittent ability to affect the running of a company (Gibson 245) should not be underestimated, case in point, the Stella Liebeck law suit. As such, accepting th e consequences of its goods and services, a company builds a foundation on which it can make profits while satisfying its customers. Secondly, accepting liability in regard to consumers ensures that the company gains the trust of its consumers. Gaining trust is instrumental when a business seeks a market niche and also to apply strategies such as cost leadership. From the actions of McDonald’s one can see that there is a clear need to fulfill customer needs for profit maximization. An excellent example is keeping the coffee extremely hot to maintain its taste. However, an intriguing concept is the aspect of duty and fiduciary relationship. Scholars hold that the interactions between a consumer and company should not reflect â€Å"a means to an end† character. Therefore, a company should pursue a fiduciary relationship rather than a duty oriented strategy. Fear of lawsuits and a dwindling market position should not be the only reason why a company strives to accept liab ility for its actions. Scholars such as Goodpaster argue that strategic thinking favors prudence rather than moral obligation. Society today is ablaze with ethical debates ranging from euthanasia to the rights of terrorists. The business world is not dormant on issues of ethics. A company by law and social stratification should consider the welfare of all its consumers regardless of the monetary ramifications. Philosophical ethics will argue against the actions of businesses with the claim that the self interest that causes them to pursue moral acts renders the act immoral. Gibson postulates that a company should treat its consumers as more than profit maximization tools thus the deontological approach. At this point, it is imperative to examine a moral act by the company Johnson & Johnson. In 1982, cyanide contaminated batch of its capsules killing more than half a dozen individuals. This led them to acknowledge fault, pull out 32 million bottles of the presumed contaminated produc t from the market and face crippling loses. However, after a while the company built its name again and regained its market position. This is what Gibson christens the bottom line. Despite the motive behind an action, the result is that both stakeholders were happy. McDonald fails in that it fails to accept rightful responsibility especially when the plaintiff requested medical

Building on the Work of Others as an Integral Part of Originality Essay - 4

Building on the Work of Others as an Integral Part of Originality - Essay Example According to the research findings, the definition of original could be something like â€Å"builds off of previous works in the field to make something new in some important way.† The reason creating a definition of original has to focus on using other people’s ideas is that using someone else’s ideas *has* to be part of creating anything new. Otherwise, creation will just be a constant process of reinventing the wheel. This is a problem in several important ways. Firstly, creating something new, that is not based on someone else’s ideas, takes a lot more time and effort – imagine what the world would be like if every single person who wanted to use the computer had to invent their own language for programming it, their own operating systems and so on. So the process of progress, of creating new thing has to use other people’s ideas to save time and energy, and actually, have time to do something new or original with it. Without this time sa ving it would be nearly impossible to actually spend any time on a true invention. Not only does creating something from scratch take a great deal more time than using other people’s ideas and building off of them, but it also actually helps promote original things (that is, things that look different or operate differently from what came before them). If someone was trying to design a car, for instance, without ever having looked at a car before, they would probably create something that looked a great deal like early automobiles, because those were simple and natural designs. But if someone were to look at cutting-edge designs like a 2012 Porsche or Cadillac, use those as a starting point, and then move forward by adding or subtracting features, streamlining here or making more elegant there, then the work would look different than what came before.

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Stronger legislatures bring stronger and more stable democracy Essay

Stronger legislatures bring stronger and more stable democracy - Essay Example It is extremely difficult to achieve all three dimensions, and this explains its evasiveness. This essay will first introduce the concept of a stable democracy and then explain the role of a strong legislature in its existence. The essay will then use the UK and US legislatures as examples of the effect of strong legislatures on stable democracies and explain how these countries’ legislatures have contributed to their sound democracies. Finally, the essay will reaffirm the stance adopted by stating that stronger legislatures are vital for stable democracies. To understand the impact of legislatures on democracy, it is first necessary to understand that legislatures are, in most countries, branches of the executive (Saathoff, 2012:48). Their common role of making laws means that they are one of the ruling arms of any governments in which they exist. In addition, in most countries, legislatures are tasked with checking the powers and actions of heads of state. These two roles (law making and power checking) are key to gaining a critical perspective of the impacts of legislatures on democracy and stable democracies, in particular (Lelan, 2012:29). Let us consider two countries that often come to mind whenever the subject of stable democracies comes up: the United Kingdom and the United States. In the United States, the modern world’s beacon of democracy, Congress is the legislating body. Looking at the history of America, it is easy to see that Congress has been at the heart of most laws that have defined the country’s democr atic leadership and its institutional strengths. As a matter of fact, the US Congress is the perfect example of a well-oiled, purpose-driven, and powerful legislature (Roper, 2013:37). The powers of the Congress, and the manner in which it exercises them have made it both a representative of the American public in the government and a formidable critic of the same government (Barkan, 2008:131). Congress checks

Property Law (Equity & Trusts) Max word limit 2250 Case Study

Property Law (Equity & Trusts) Max word limit 2250 - Case Study Example There is no such statutory provision for cohabitants; they are subject to the equitable rules of resulting and/or constructive trusts and/or promissory estoppel and may have no redress despite having made substantial contributions to the maintenance of the property and/or indirect contributions to the payment of the mortgage. This is aggravated by the lack of certainty in the law with regard to measuring acquisition and quantification of beneficial interests. The 'justice' received turns on the initial pleading of the claimant and the manner in which the household budget was allocated4. Typically a claimant who seeks an estoppel will have a broader range of remedies available from the court than someone who seeks to establish a constructive trust based on indirect contributions. This has led to inconsistency in judgments, which undermines the certainty of the law, with a subsequent increase in litigation and costs5. The Law Commission speculated on introducing a 'statutory trust' where registered beneficiaries would earn a pro rata proprietary interest rather than a personal right to be repaid the value of their relevant contribution(s), subject to evidence of gifts or loans6. Unfortunately it was felt that the scheme would not reduce the evidential burden and that it did not offer enough remedies. In particular the scheme did not fully address the lost economic opportunities following the breakdown of a relationship where the contributions were non-direct7. Other commonwealth jurisdictions have different approaches but the same issues of uncertainty and obscurity.8 It is submitted that the focus on the 'family' home is too narrow given the statistics on cohabitation and the many diverse forms which have evolved. A broader approach to shared rights in accommodation is called for. As demonstrated in the Law Commission's review of other jurisdictions waiting for the courts to develop greater flexibility will necessarily be slow, strapped as they are by an Executive still focusing on the 'family' - hence displaying a lack of understanding of the social issues - on one hand and judicial precedent on the other. Advisors also will be limited by decided cases and the increasing difficulty of obtaining legal aid to bring novel situations before the court. Further, the law is based on outmoded ideas of shared accommodation and the idea of common intention. The emphasis on status - with marriage being the ideal - seems to be holding back the development of the law in this area. It is submitted that the 'evil' to be overcome is not one's marital status, or whether or not children are brought up in a marriage, but inadequate financial provision for persons who have a legitimate expectation to be provided for. This should be the norm regardless of 'status'. One absurdity of the 'status' approach is the impact on the descendants of married versus non-married couples, where 'legitimate' children can expect to be provided for whilst 'illegitimate' children are reliant on a judge's largesse. The Civil Partnership Act 2004 ss65-68 are a step in the right direction, but only covers couples of the same gender who have undergone a prescribed ceremony. Whilst non-financial contributions are recognised, this is limited by the requirement of a contribution of a 'substantial

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Stronger legislatures bring stronger and more stable democracy Essay

Stronger legislatures bring stronger and more stable democracy - Essay Example It is extremely difficult to achieve all three dimensions, and this explains its evasiveness. This essay will first introduce the concept of a stable democracy and then explain the role of a strong legislature in its existence. The essay will then use the UK and US legislatures as examples of the effect of strong legislatures on stable democracies and explain how these countries’ legislatures have contributed to their sound democracies. Finally, the essay will reaffirm the stance adopted by stating that stronger legislatures are vital for stable democracies. To understand the impact of legislatures on democracy, it is first necessary to understand that legislatures are, in most countries, branches of the executive (Saathoff, 2012:48). Their common role of making laws means that they are one of the ruling arms of any governments in which they exist. In addition, in most countries, legislatures are tasked with checking the powers and actions of heads of state. These two roles (law making and power checking) are key to gaining a critical perspective of the impacts of legislatures on democracy and stable democracies, in particular (Lelan, 2012:29). Let us consider two countries that often come to mind whenever the subject of stable democracies comes up: the United Kingdom and the United States. In the United States, the modern world’s beacon of democracy, Congress is the legislating body. Looking at the history of America, it is easy to see that Congress has been at the heart of most laws that have defined the country’s democr atic leadership and its institutional strengths. As a matter of fact, the US Congress is the perfect example of a well-oiled, purpose-driven, and powerful legislature (Roper, 2013:37). The powers of the Congress, and the manner in which it exercises them have made it both a representative of the American public in the government and a formidable critic of the same government (Barkan, 2008:131). Congress checks

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Project 2 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 1

Project 2 - Essay Example Modern society is filled with hollow people who worship power and materialism, and it is a bad situation because they cannot be redeemed, until their deaths, when they whimper with the sight of their own emptiness and darkness. â€Å"The Hollow Men† is about the modern society of hollow men because people are empty and dark without meaningful identities. They are empty because they are like Kurtz who are consumed with pursuit of power and wealth. The allusion to Kurtz in the epigraph says something about this pursuit: â€Å"Mistah Kurtz- he dead† (Eliot). The native who says this is lost after their master is gone, a master who nurtured them to believe that power and wealth are the only things important in the world. He is one of the hollow men with hollow gods. The repetition of â€Å"we† signifies the rise of the majority that has the same thinking: â€Å"We are the hollow men/We are the stuffed men†¦Headpiece filled with straw† (Eliot 1-2, 4). They are hollow because they have stuffed their heads with the thinking that modern life should be based on the accumulation of wealth and power. Furthermore, the hollow men are dark because they conform to meaningless social norms. The poem describes the way they move: â€Å"We whisper together /Are quiet and meaningless/As wind in dry grass/Or rats' feet over broken glass† (Eliot 6-9). ... The rats’ feet over the glass shards indicate the rat race that they run, and the glass is broken because they cannot see that materialism has dehumanized them completely. Their identities are empty, hollow without meaning in and after life. Aside from meaningless identities, the poem shows that the hollow men want to be redeemed, but they cannot achieve it because they fear the knowledge of their wasted lives. The allusion to Dante Alighieri’s The Divine Comedy is present in the poem. The hollow men say: â€Å"Eyes I dare not meet in dreams/In death's dream kingdom† (Eliot 19-20). These lines can pertain to Dante who cannot look into Beatrice’s eyes yet because he is impure. In addition, the hollow men cannot be saved, until they die and see the depths of their emptiness and darkness. Eliot revises the children’s song on the mulberry bush: â€Å"Here we go round the prickly pear/At five o'clock in the morning† (70-71). The hollow men want re demption, as Christ died during this time. But they cannot be redeemed until their deaths: â€Å"This is the way the world ends/Not with a bang but a whimper† (Eliot 97-98). The whimper comes from seeing their lives as Kurtz had- horrified at the emptiness and darkness of their hearts. â€Å"The Hollow Men† is a reflection of the dead on the living. It manifests their desire to know what led them to be hollow. The hollow men are real men in modern society. They want power and wealth for itself, and as it becomes a constant pursuit, they are dehumanized. They become hollow with gaping space of darkness and emptiness in their souls. The saddest thing is that they vastly multiply, for the whispers of power and wealth have taken easily over the lives of many women and men, ringing loudly, turning

Monday, October 14, 2019

Psychology Articles Essay Example for Free

Psychology Articles Essay 1. Glazer, H. R., Clark, M. D., Stein, D. S. (2004). The Impact of Hippotherapy on Grieving Children. Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing 6(3), 171-175. This article is a study on the effects of hippotherapy or therapeutic riding on grieving children affected by the death of a family member. The topic focuses on the grieving of children specifically because of the observation that their bereavement often coincides with issues relating to their natural growth and development. Thus, sometimes it is difficult to ascertain whether a child’s reaction should be properly classified as growth or grief (Glazer, Clark Stein, 2004). In order to add substantial information on the literature on childrens bereavement, the authors conducted a study that would determine how a 6-week hippotherapy program would work on grieving children. They sought to determine how stakeholders, such as the parents, children, and adult volunteer would perceive the program (Glazer, Clark Stein, 2004). The study involved a 6-week program where selected children with ages 4 to 14 stayed at the Buckeye Ranch for sessions that taught them how to ride horses. Each session ended with the children telling the things they learned for that session. The parents and adult volunteers were also asked to reflect on their perception of the therapeutic riding session. The authors found positive results from the study, consisting of increased confidence, self-esteem, and trust among the children. The children also gained communication skills as a result of the study. Finally, both guardians and parents found the riding therapy as a positive experience. Thus, they concluded that riding therapy is a good way for finding expression of grief. 2. Andrews, C. R. Marotta, S. A. (2005). Spirituality and Coping Among Grieving Children: A Preliminary Study. Counseling and Values 50, 38-50. This article describes grief as a natural part of human experience. The authors of this paper, however, note that literature on grieving mostly focus on adults coping mechanisms. Particularly, literature on adult bereavement focuses on religious practices and spiritual beliefs as effective coping mechanisms. Therefore, the authors aimed to extrapolate from such literature and attempt to apply major themes among grieving children (Andrews Marotta, 2005). The authors completed a sample size of 6 children between the ages of 4 and 9, coming from various institutions. All participants experienced death within the family in the past 18 months before the period of the study. Parents consent was secured from each participant. During the 3-month study period, children, parents, and main caregivers were given semistructured interviews. Such interviews led to qualitative data. There were also check-in sessions conducted every month. The study utilized a phenomenological approach so that specific aspect so f bereavement could surface (Andrews Marotta, 2005). The authors found that children’s grief are not necessarily similar to that of adults. Children grieve repeatedly as they go from one developmental stage to the next. Certain objects or mechanisms were also found to have been effective in dealing with the grief of children, such as puppets, games, bibliotherapy, and drawings. They also note that certain spiritual aspects like linking objects and connection through metaphorical play may play a huge role in comforting grieving children (Andrews Marotta, 2005). 3. Abeles, N., Victor, T. L. Delano-Wood, L. (2004). The Impact of an Older Adults Death on the Family. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 35(3), 234-239. This article reviews extant literature on issues of death and dying. Specifically, it is concerned with the impact on the death of an older member of a family to surviving members, particularly on surviving adult children. It also aims to derive implications for treatment based on the study (Abeles, Victor Delano-Wood, 2004). The methodology involved a simple review of literature, both on theoretical and empirical levels, on the topic of death and bereavement. Based on such literature review, the authors suggested individual or play therapy, psychoeducation, and different interventions as treatment options for grief. The authors likewise concluded that each individual may cope with loss or death of a family members in different ways. Some may not undergo the usual stages of grief. Thus, understanding of various coping mechanisms could also help surviving family members in dealing with grief (Abeles, Victor Delano-Wood, 2004). 4. Ens, C. Bond, J. B. (2007). Death Anxiety in Adolescents: The Contributions of Bereavement and Religiosity. Baywood Publishing Co., Inc., 169-184. This article aims to determine possible relationships between religiosity, bereavement, and death anxiety levels of adolescents. This is done to achieve greater understanding of adolescents, who face difficult challenges during bereavement (Ens Bond, 2007). The authors conducted a study with 226 adolescents as participants. These participants have ages ranging from 11 to 18 and come from rural and urban private schools. Both the parents and student participants gave written consent before participating in the study. The authors formulated one questionnaire that consisted of several scales that measure bereavement, religiosity, and death anxiety. This questionnaire was administered to participants and the data was analyzed (Ens Bond, 2007). The data showed a strong correlation between death and grief due to death in the family. Consequently, the authors concluded, grief due to bereavement was the only factor found to independently contribute death anxiety for adolescents. Finally, the authors found weak relationship between death anxiety and personal religiosity (Ens Bond, 2007). 5. Papadatou, D., Metallinou, O., Hatzichristou, C. Pavlidi, L. (2002). Supporting the bereaved child: teacher’s perceptions and experiences in Greece. Mortality 7(3), 324-339. This article reports a national survey conducted by the authors, aimed at determining how Greek teachers perceived bereaved children. More specifically, this study aimed to analyze experiences of children who grieved the death of a relative and a classmate. These aims result from the belief that grief is affected by the level of support received by bereaved children (Papadatou, Metallinou, Hatzichristou Pavlidi, 2002). The authors selected participating population by applying a specific criterion on a list of Greek schools provided by the Ministry of Education, National Statistical Service. The authors handed out 3,500 questionnaires among Greek educators, and data was gathered from the responses (Papadatou, Metallinou, Hatzichristou Pavlidi, 2002). The national survey resulted in several important findings. For one, it appears that Greek educators feel that the experience of death in the family or classmate negatively affect the performance of a bereaved child in school. Moreover, educators who had more years in experience as teachers had more opportunity to observe grieving children and the effect of bereavement on them. Finally, most educators appeared comfortable talking to bereaved students and cooperate with their family to help them cope with their loss (Papadatou, Metallinou, Hatzichristou Pavlidi, 2002). 6. Charkow, W. B. Inviting Children to Grieve. Professional School Counseling. This article discusses the importance of grieving for children who have experienced death in the family. It reviews literature and shows how society and families often shield children from the fact of death. This paper aims to establish the importance of grieving for children by showing how shielding children affects them (Charkow). The article basically reviews literature on death and the responses to its experience. These factors affect how the loss of a person through death could be traumatic to a child. For example, the relationship of the child with the deceased is a relevant factor to consider. Through the study of extant literature on bereavement, the author laid down several implications for stakeholders, such as parents, teachers, and counselors. The author concludes that being up front with children about the realities of death would lead them to cope properly through understanding and grieving appropriately. 7. Cohen, J., Goodman, R. F., Brown, E. J. Mannarino, A. (2004). Treatment of Childhood Traumatic Grief: Contributing to a Newly Emerging Condition in the Wake of Community Trauma. Treatment of Childhood Traumatic Grief After 9/11, 213-216. This article is a response to the events of the 9/11 attack in New York City, which resulted in the death of many parents. The authors report that more than 10,000 children lost parents and loved ones on that fateful day. Hence, the authors concern about childhood traumatic grief (Cohen, Goodman, Brown Mannarino, 2004). This article basically reviews extant literature on childhood traumatic grief, particularly those relating to treatment interventions and psychotherapeutic approaches to childhood traumatic grief (Cohen, Goodman, Brown Mannarino, 2004). After reviewing literature on interventions to childhood traumatic grief, such as client-centered therapy, the authors discussed various factors that affect the assessment and treatment of the condition. Finally, the authors provided suggestions for future directions, particularly since the literature on childhood traumatic grief is still in its infancy (Cohen, Goodman, Brown Mannarino, 2004). 8. Crenshaw, D. A. (2005). Clinical Tools to Facilitate Treatment of Childhood Traumatic Grief. OMEGA 51(3), 239-255. This article aims to describe strategies and techniques that address childhood traumatic grief in order to how clinicians how to address youth experiencing such condition. These strategies use themes such as abandonment and attachment (Crenshaw, 2005). This article’s methodology consisted mainly in reviewing and describing various techniques and strategies used in dealing with grieving children. The authors then analyzed how such techniques helped children with their bereavement (Crenshaw, 2005). The strategies described in this article illustrate how themes such as facing unknown dangers and leaving behind loved ones and family help children cope with loss and address unresolved issues (Crenshaw, 2005). References Abeles, N., Victor, T. L. Delano-Wood, L. (2004). The Impact of an Older Adults Death on the Family. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice 35(3), 234-239. Andrews, C. R. Marotta, S. A. (2005). Spirituality and Coping Among Grieving Children: A Preliminary Study. Counseling and Values 50, 38-50. Charkow, W. B. Inviting Children to Grieve. Professional School Counseling. Crenshaw, D. A. (2005). Clinical Tools to Facilitate Treatment of Childhood Traumatic Grief. OMEGA 51(3), 239-255. Cohen, J., Goodman, R. F., Brown, E. J. Mannarino, A. (2004). Treatment of Childhood Traumatic Grief: Contributing to a Newly Emerging Condition in the Wake of Community Trauma. Treatment of Childhood Traumatic Grief After 9/11, 213-216. Ens, C. Bond, J. B. (2007). Death Anxiety in Adolescents: The Contributions of Bereavement and Religiosity. Baywood Publishing Co., Inc., 169-184. Glazer, H. R., Clark, M. D., Stein, D. S. (2004). The Impact of Hippotherapy on Grieving Children. Journal of Hospice and Palliative Nursing 6(3), 171-175. Papadatou, D., Metallinou, O., Hatzichristou, C. Pavlidi, L. (2002). Supporting the bereaved child: trachers perceptions and experiences in Greece. Mortality 7(3), 324-339.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Representation of War in Sassoon’s They, Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway, and the

Representation of War in Sassoon’s They, Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway, and the film Hedd Wynn â€Å"They†, by Siegfried Sassoon, â€Å"Mrs. Dalloway, by Virginia Woolf, and the film Hedd Wynn directed by Paul Turner, were works written about World War I. These works were the author’s point of view about the war. The authors described how the war effected people during and after the war was over. The poem â€Å"They†, by Siegfried Sassoon was a poem written during World War I. The poem basically states that no man comes out of the war the same. People who go into war are facing death. Either the soldier comes out alive, or dead. The war will have some affect on a soldier in some way or another. This representation of war applies to Virginia Woolf’s novel â€Å"Mrs. Dalloway†, and the film Hedd Wynn. Both pieces consist of characters that went to war, and as a result died in the war. It seems as if the authors believe that if there is a war, there will be some kind of tragedy as a result. The tragedy isn’t always a bad thing. Either th ere will be Mental problems, physical problems, or death as the result. The poem â€Å"They† displays a war representation of change of human existence can be applied to the novel Mrs. Dalloway, and Hedd Wynn. Mrs. Dalloway, and Hedd Wynn representation of war was death. The poem â€Å"They† begins with a Bishop saying that the soldiers wouldn’t come back as the same men. Some of soldiers admitted that some were injured, and faced death. Some of the soldiers also admitted that no man would come from the war without being changed. Siegfried Sassoon is stating that these men who fight in the war, will come back changed physically, mentally, or face death. In â€Å"Mrs. Dalloway†, the character Septimus fought in the World War I in Englan... ...s mind from the war. Woolf used Clarissa as a person who could relate to Septimus, because she wanted to plunge into another place herself. By plunging into another place, she could get away from the facade that she had to put on in front of guest. She wanted to be herself, not someone else. Ellis died, and he won chair for his poem. Once again people change after they fight in the war. Woolf and the Paul Turner also imply that death is not always a terrible aspect in one’s life. It can bring out the best in a person. Work Cited Woolf, Virginia. Mrs. Dalloway. San Diego, New York: Harcourt, Inc., 1925. Sasoon, Siegfried. â€Å"They.† The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Ed. M.H. Abrams. 7th ed. vol. 2c. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 2000. p. 2055 Hedd Wynn. Dir. Paul Turner. Perf. Huw Garman, Catrin Fychan. Welsh Films., 1996.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Egypt: The Gift Of The Nile :: essays research papers

The Nile, is the longest river in the world, and is located in northeastern Africa. Its principal source is Lake Victoria, in east central Africa. The Nile flows north through Uganda, Sudan, and Egypt to the Mediterranean Sea, with a total distance of 5584 km. From its remotest headstream in Burundi, the river is 6671 km long. The river basin covers an area of more than 3,349,000 sq km. Not only is the Nile considered a wonder by Herodotus, but by people all over the world, due to its impotance to the growth of a civilization.The first great African civilization developed in the northern Nile Valley in about 5000 BC. Dependent on agriculture, this state, called Egypt, relied on the flooding of the Nile for irrigation and new soils. It dominated vast areas of northeastern Africa for millennia. Ruled by Egypt for about 1800 years, the Kush region of northern Sudan subjugated Egypt in the 8th century BC. Pyramids, temples, and other monuments of these civilizations blanket the river valley in Egypt and northern Sudan.To Egypt, the Nile is seen as the fountain of life. Every year, between the months of June and October, the great rivers of the Nile rush north, and flood the highlands of Etiopia. The flooding surges of the land, and leaves behind water for the people, and fertile land, which can be used for agriculture. The impact the Nile has on Egypt during the ancient times and present are consierably apparent. The influence the Nile has is so extensive, that even the speech is transposed. For example, "To go north" in the Egyption language is the same as, "to go down stream"; "to go south" the same as "to go upstream." Also, the term for a "foreign country" in Egypt would be used as "highland" or "desert", because the only mountains or deserts would be far away, and foreign to them. The Nile certainly had an exceptional influence on Egypts, both lifestyle and thinking.The Nile also forced a change on the political system and ruling in Egypt. Because of the vast floods every year, the country needed a ruler that was capable of enforcing of the farmings and methods used. Such as the hoarding of the water and the stocking of the food harvested. Second, only a stongly cetralized administration could manafe the economy properly.

Friday, October 11, 2019

Marketing strategies Essay

The word â€Å"strategy† is derived from the Greek word â€Å"stratà §gos†; stratus (meaning army) and â€Å"ago† (meaning leading/moving). Strategy is an action that managers take to attain one or more of the organization’s goals. Strategy can also be defined as â€Å"A general direction set for the company and its various components to achieve a desired state in the future. Strategy results from the detailed strategic planning process†. A strategy is all about integrating organizational activities and utilizing and allocating the scarce resources within the organizational environment so as to meet the present objectives. While planning a strategy it is essential to consider that decisions are not taken in a vaccum and that any act taken by a firm is likely to be met by a reaction from those affected, competitors, customers, employees or suppliers. Strategy can also be defined as knowledge of the goals, the uncertainty of events and the need to take into consideration the likely or actual behavior of others. Strategy is the blueprint of decisions in an organization that shows its objectives and goals, reduces the key policies, and plans for achieving these goals, and defines the business the company is to carry on, the type of economic and human organization it wants to be, and the contribution it plans to make to its shareholders, customers and society at large. Features of strategic management Strategy relates the firm to its environment, particularly the external environ-ment in all actions whether objective setting, or actions and resources required for its achievement. This definition emphasizes on the systems approach of management and treats an organization as part of the society consequently affected by it. Strategy is the right combination of factors both external and internal. In relating an organization to its environment, the management must also consider the internal factors too, particularly its strengths and weaknesses, to take various courses of action. Strategy is relative combination of actions. The combination is to meet a particu-lar condition, to solve certain problems, or to attain a desirable objective. It may take any form; for every situation varies and, therefore, requires a somewhat different approach. Strategy may even involve contradictory action. Since strategic action depends on environmental variables, a manager may take an action today and revise or reverse his steps tomorrow depending on the situations. Strategy is forward looking. It has orientation towards the future. Strategic ac-tion is required in a new situation. Nothing-new requiring solutions can exist in the past, and so strategy is relevant only to the future. Process The strategic management process is more than just a set of rules to follow. It is a philosophical approach to business. Upper management must think strategically first, then apply that thought to a process. The strategic management process is best implemented when everyone within the business understands the strategy. The five stages of the process are goal-setting, analysis, strategy formation, strategy implementation and strategy monitoring. 1. Goal-Setting The purpose of goal-setting is to clarify the vision for your business. This stage consists of identifying three key facets: First, define both short- and long-term objectives. Second, identify the process of how to accomplish your objective. Finally, customize the process for your staff, give each person a task with which he can succeed. Keep in mind during this process your goals to be detailed, realistic and match the values of your vision. Typically, the final step in this stage is to write a mission statement that succinctly communicates your goals to both your shareholders and your staff. 2. Analysis Analysis is a key stage because the information gained in this stage will shape the next two stages. In this stage, gather as much information and data relevant to accomplishing your vision. The focus of the analysis should be on understanding the needs of the business as a sustainable entity, its strategic direction and identifying initiatives that will help your business grow. Examine any external or internal issues that can affect your goals and objectives. Make sure to identify both the strengths and weaknesses of your organization as well as any threats and opportunities that may arise along the path. 3. Strategy Formulation The first step in forming a strategy is to review the information gleaned from completing the analysis. Determine what resources the business currently has that can help reach the defined goals and objectives. Identify any areas of which the business must seek external resources. The issues facing the company should be prioritized by their importance to your success. Once prioritized, begin formulating the strategy. Because business and economic situations are fluid, it is critical in this stage to develop alternative approaches that target each step of the plan. 4. Strategy Implementation Successful strategy implementation is critical to the success of the business venture. This is the action stage of the strategic management process. If the overall strategy does not work with the business’ current structure, a new structure should be installed at the beginning of this stage. Everyone within the organization must be made clear of their responsibilities and duties, and how that fits in with the overall goal. Additionally, any resources or funding for the venture must be secured at this point. Once the funding is in place and the employees are ready, execute the plan. 5. Evaluation and Control Strategy evaluation and control actions include performance measurements, consistent review of internal and external issues and making corrective actions when necessary. Any successful evaluation of the strategy begins with defining the parameters to be measured. These parameters should mirror the goals set in Stage Types of strategic management 1. Functional strategies Functional strategy- selection of decision rules in each functional area. Thus, functional strategies in any organization, some (e.g., marketing strategy, financial strategy, etc.). It is desirable that they have been fixed in writing. In particular, functional strategies are as follows: Production strategy( â€Å"make or buy†) – defines what the company produces itself, and that purchases from suppliers or partners, that is, how far worked out the production chain. Financial Strategy- to select the main source of funding: the development of their own funds (depreciation, profit, the issue of shares, etc.) or through debt financing (bank loans, bonds, commodity suppliers’ credits, etc.). Organizational strategy- decision on the organization of the staff (choose the type of organizational structure, compensation system, etc.). May be allocated and other functional strategies, for example, the strategy for research and experimental development (R & D), investment strategy, etc. In addition, each of the functional strategies can be divided into components. For example, organizational strategy can be divided into three components: strategy of building organizations – to select the type of structure (divisional, functional, project, etc.); strategy to work with the staff – a way of training (mainly administrative staff), training of staff (in a business or educational institutions), career planning, etc.; Strategy wages (in the broader sense – rewards and penalties) – in particular, the approach to the compensation of senior managers (salary, bonuses, profit sharing, etc.). Organization for the implementation of the strategy at the functional area responsible senior specialist (Ch. Engineer, Director of Finance), at the enterprise level – the general director or director of the department, at the level of groups of companies – a collegiate body (management, board of directors). 2. Human resources Role in Strategy Formulation: HRM is in a unique position to supply competitive intelligence that may be useful in strategy formulation. Details regarding advanced incentive plans used by competitors, opinion survey data from employees, elicit information about customer complaints, information about pending legislation etc. can be provided by HRM. Unique HR capabilities serve as a driving force in strategy formulation. 3. Marketing strategies Marketing management is a business discipline which is focused on the practical application of marketing techniques and the management of a firm’s marketing resources and activities. Globalization has led firms to market beyond the borders of their home countries, making international marketinghighly significant and an integral part of a firm’s marketing strategy. Marketing managers are often responsible for influencing the level, timing, and composition of customer demand accepted definition of the term. In part, this is because the role of a marketing manager can vary significantly based on a business’s size, corporate culture, and industry context. For example, in a large consumer products company, the marketing manager may act as the overall general manager of his or her assigned product. To create an effective, cost-efficient marketing management strategy, firms must possess a detailed, objective understanding of their own business and the market in which they operate. In analyzing these issues, the discipline of marketing management often overlaps with the related discipline of strategic planning. To achieve the desired objectives, marketers typically identify one or more target customer segments which they intend to pursue. Customer segments are often selected as targets because they score highly on two dimensions: 1) The segment is attractive to serve because it is large, growing, makes frequent purchases, is not price sensitive (i.e. is willing to pay high prices), or other factors; and 2) The company has the resources and capabilities to compete for the segment’s business, can meet their needs better than the competition, and can do so profitably. [3] In fact, a commonly cited definition of marketing is simply â€Å"meeting needs profitably.† 4. Financial strategy To get the most out of your financial resources and achieve sustainability you’ll need to successfully manage all your funding and financing sources in an overarching strategy for your organisation. Many organisations manage income from a number of different funding and finance sources – from donations, grants, contracts and income generated from trading. A financial strategy enables your organisation to assess your financial needs and the sources of support required to meet your objectives and fulfil the organisational mission, whilst also planning for continued growth to enable stability. You’re financial strategy will derive from your mission. So the first step is to clearly define why you exist and you plan to achieve your mission before preparing any budgets. Cadbury History Birmingham 1824 John Cadbury was one of ten children of Richard Tapper Cadbury, a prominent Quaker who had moved to Birmingham, England from the West Country in 1794. In 1824, 22-year-old John Cadbury opened his first shop at 93 Bull Street, next to his father’s drapery and silk business in the then fashionable part of Birmingham. Apart from selling tea and coffee, John Cadbury sold hops, mustard and a new sideline – cocoa and drinking chocolate, which he prepared using a mortar and pestle. Cocoa and drinking chocolate had been introduced into England in the 1650s but remained a luxury enjoyed by the elite of English society. Customers at John Cadbury’s shop were amongst the most prosperous Birmingham families, the only ones who could afford the delicacy. Cocoa beans were imported from South and Central America and the West Indies. Experimenting with his mortar and pestle, John Cadbury produced a range of cocoa and chocolate drinks, the latter with added sugar. The products were sold in blocks: customers scraped a little off into a cup or saucepan and added hot milk or water. John Cadbury had a considerable flair for advertising and promotion. â€Å"John Cadbury is desirous of introducing to particular notice ‘Cocoa Nibs’, prepared by himself, an article affording a most nutritious beverage for breakfast,† announced his first advertisement in the Birmingham Gazette in March 1824. He soon established himself as one of the leading cocoa and drinking chocolate traders in Birmingham. The popularity and growing sales of John Cadbury’s cocoa and drinking chocolate of ‘superior quality’ determined the future direction of the business. In 1831, John Cadbury rented a small factory in Crooked Lane not far from his shop. He became a manufacturer of drinking chocolate and cocoa, laying the foundation for the Cadbury chocolate business. These early cocoa and drinking chocolates were balanced with potato starch and sago flour to counter the high cocoa butter content, while other ingredients were added to give healthy properties. By 1842, John Cadbury was selling sixteen lines of drinking chocolate and cocoa in cake and powder forms. The Quaker Influence The Cadbury family were prominent members of the Society of Friends or Quakers, one of the many nonconformist religious groups formed in the 17th century. Their strong beliefs carried into campaigns aimed at ending poverty and deprivation and many prominent Quaker-run businesses were part of reforms of social and industrial society in Victorian Britain. John Cadbury’s lifelong involvement with the Temperance Society influenced the direction of his business enterprise. By providing tea, coffee, cocoa and chocolate as an alternative to alcohol he felt he was helping to alleviate some of the alcolohol-related causes of poverty and deprivation amongst working people. He also incorporated some of these principles in his industrial relations philosophy. (See A Progressive Workplace) Cadbury Brothers of Birmingham John Cadbury As the enterprise prospered, in 1847 John Cadbury rented a larger factory in Bridge Street, off Broad Street, in the centre of Birmingham and went into partnership with his brother Benjamin – trading as Cadbury Brothers of Birmingham. The retail side of the business in Bull Street was passed to a nephew, Richard Cadbury Barrow in 1849. Barrow Stores, as it became, traded in Central Birmingham until the 1960s. A major turning point for the cocoa and chocolate industry came in the mid-1850s, when taxes on imported cocoa beans were reduced by Prime Minister William Gladstone. The previously prohibitive chocolate products were now within the reach of the wider population. Cadbury Brothers received their first Royal Warrant on February 4, 1854 as ‘manufacturers of cocoa and chocolate to Queen Victoria.’ The company continues to hold royal warrants of appointment. During the 1850s business began to decline. The partnership between the first Cadbury brothers was dissolved in 1860, a difficult time in the company’s history. John Cadbury’s sons Richard and George, who had joined the company in the 1850s, became the second Cadbury brothers to run the business when their father retired due to failing health in 1861. John Cadbury devoted the rest of his life to civic and social work in Birmingham until his death in 1889. Although they had worked in their father’s business for some years, the prospects for Richard. 25, and George, 21, were daunting. Their first five years were a period of unremitting toil with few customers, long hours and very frugal living. Both seriously considered taking up other vocations – Richard as a surveyor in England and George as a tea planter in India. George was focused on manufacturing, and Richard with sales, but in the early days both brothers went out and promoted their goods. Due to their dedication, sheer hard work and improvements in the quality of Cadbury cocoa products, the business survived and prospered. Technological Advancements Historic packaging Dissatisfied with the quality of cocoa products, including their own, the Cadbury brothers took a momentous step in 1866 that not only had a bearing on their business but revolutionised the whole of the British cocoa business. Until that time English cocoa had been heavily adulterated with starch substances like potato flour or sago to mask the excess cocoa butter. The cocoa drink, as described by George Cadbury himself, was a â€Å"comforting gruel†. Following a visit to the Van Houten factory in Holland to see their new cocoa press, the brothers introduced this new process to their Bridge Street factory. The press removed some of the cocoa butter from the beans, producing a less rich and more palatable cocoa essence – the forerunner of the cocoa we know today. There was no need to add flour and Cadbury’s new cocoa essence was advertised as ‘Absolutely pure†¦therefore Best’ At that time there was much concern in Parliament about the adulteration of food, including cocoa. The new unadulterated Cadbury’s cocoa essence was heralded as a major breakthrough and resulted in the passing of the Adulteration of Food Acts in 1872 and 1875. Cadbury received a remarkable amount of free publicity during this period and sales increased dramatically. The marketing of this cocoa essence helped turn a small business into a vast worldwide company. The introduction of cocoa essence was not the only innovation that improved the Cadbury Brothers’ trade. The plentiful supply of cocoa butter remaining after the cocoa was pressed made it possible to produce a wide variety of new kinds of ‘eating chocolate,’ leading to the development of the smooth creamy chocolate produced today. The quality of the chocolates made by the company following the introduction of the cocoa press was such that in the 1870s, Cadbury broke the monopoly which French producers had previously enjoyed in the British Market. Cadbury’s Chocolate Box A chocolate for eating had been produced at the Cadbury factory since 1849 but it was not, by today’s standards, a very palatable product. With the availability of cocoa butter a new chocolate recipe produced chocolate similar to that which we enjoy today. Refined plain chocolate was made for moulding into blocks or making bars and chocolate creams that with chocolate-covered fruit-flavoured centres. Cadbury’s â€Å"fancy chocolates†- or assortments as they are now called – were sold in decorated boxes, with small pictures that children could cut out to stick into scrapbooks. Richard Cadbury applied his considerable artistic talents to introduce more ambitious and attractive box designs from his own paintings, using his own children as models or depicting flowers and scenes from his travels. They were the first British-made fancy chocolate boxes and were very popular. Some of his original boxes still exist. Elaborate chocolate boxes were much prized as special gifts by the late Victorians as they could later be used as trinket or button boxes. Chocolate box designs ranged from superb velvet covered caskets with bevelled mirrors and silk lined jewel boxes to pretty boxes with pictures on the lid. The popularity of these splendid Cadbury boxes continued until their disappearance during the Second World War. Victorian and Edwardian chocolate boxes are now collector’s items. Cadbury Brothers Ltd The business became a private limited company – Cadbury Brothers Limited – in 1899 following Richard Cadbury’s sudden death at the age of 63. George Cadbury became chairman of the new board and his fellow directors were Barrow and William A. Cadbury, sons of Richard and two of his own sons, Edward and George Cadbury Junior. By 1899, the Bournville factory had trebled in size with more than 2,600 employees. With the formation of the limited company, Bournville entered a new era as the younger members of the Board introduced new ideas – analytical laboratories, advertising and cost offices, a sales department, works committee, medical department, pension funds, education and training for employees. The Bournville factory site became a series of factories within a factory, as everything needed for the business was produced on site, including tin box pressing plants, carton making units, a design studio and printing plant. This policy continued until well after the Second World War when the rationalisation of the business to mainstream activity – production and marketing of chocolate confectionery- led to the use of outside specialised suppliers for ancillary items. . Cadbury India began its operations in India in 1948 by importing chocolates. It now has manufacturing facilities in Thane, Induri (Pune) and Malanpur (Gwalior), Bangalore and Baddi (Himachal Pradesh) and sales offices in New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai. The corporate head office is inMumbai. Since 1965 Cadbury has also pioneered the development of cocoa cultivation in India. For over two decades, Cadbury has worked with theKerala Agricultural University to undertake cocoa research. Cadbury was incorporated in India on 19 July 1948. Currently, Cadbury India operates in five categories – Chocolate confectionery, Beverages, Biscuits, Gum and Candy. Some of the key brands are Cadbury Dairy Milk, Bournvita, 5 Star, Perk, Bournville, Celebrations, Gems, Halls, Éclairs, Bubbaloo, Tang and Oreo. Its products include Cadbury Dairy Milk, Dairy Milk Silk, Bournville, 5-Star, Perk, Gems (a version of M&M’s), Eclairs,Bournvita, Celebrations, Bilkul Cadbury Dairy Milk Shots, Toblerone, Halls, Tang and Oreo. It is the market leader in the chocolate confectionery business with a market share of over 70%. Products Major chocolate brands produced by Cadbury include the bars Dairy Milk, Crunchie, Caramel, Wispa, Boost, Picnic, Flake, Curly Wurly, Chomp, and Fudge; chocolate Buttons; the boxed chocolate brand Milk Tray; and the twist-wrapped chocolates Heroes. As well as Cadbury’s chocolate, the company also owns Maynards and Halls, and is associated with several types of confectionery including former Trebor and Bassett’s brands or products such as Liquorice Allsorts, Jelly Babies, Flumps, Mints, Black Jack chews, Trident gum, and Softmints. Notable product introductions include: 1866: Cocoa Essence 1875: Easter Eggs 1897: Milk Chocolate and Fingers 1905: Dairy Milk 1908: Bournville 1914: Fry’s Turkish Delight 1915: Milk Tray 1920: Flake 1923: Creme Egg (launched as Fry’s) 1926: Cadbury Dairy Milk Fruit & Nut 1929: Crunchie (launched as Fry’s) 1938: Roses 1948: Fudge 1958: Picnic 1960: Dairy Milk Buttons 1968: Aztec 1970: Curly Wurly 1974: Snack 1976: Double Decker 1981: Wispa (relaunched 2007) 1985: Boost 1987: Twirl 1992: Time Out 1995: Wispa Gold (relaunched 2009 and 2011) 1996: Fuse 2001: Brunch Bar, Dream and Flake Snow 2009: Dairy Milk Silk 2010: Dairy Milk Bliss 2011: Big Race oreo 2012: Marvellous Creations and Crispello. Advertising controversy In May 2011 the model Naomi Campbell described the new advertisement for the Bliss bar as ‘insulting and hurtful’. Reacting to the advertisement, which had the tag line Move over Naomi – there is a new diva in town, Campbell said, â€Å"I am shocked. It’s upsetting to be described as chocolate, not just for me, but for all black women and black people. I do not find any humour in this.† A spokesperson for the company insisted that the campaign was â€Å"a light-hearted take on the social pretensions of Cadbury Dairy Milk Bliss†. The campaign was, he later added, â€Å"no longer in circulation†¦ we have no plans to repeat the campaign.† Reacting to Campbell’s outburst, comedian Reginald D. Hunter, on the BBC television comedy quiz Have I Got News For You, suggested that it was complimentary for black people to be compared to chocolate, and that enjoyment of the Bliss bar might even be enhanced by a love of black people. Health and safety 2006 Salmonella scare On 19 January 2006, Cadbury Schweppes detected a rare strain of the Salmonella bacteria, affecting seven of its products, said to have been caused by a leaking pipe. The leak occurred at itsMarlbrook plant, in Herefordshire, which produces chocolate crumb mixture; the mixture is then transported to factories at Bournville and formerly Somerdale to be turned into milk chocolate. It was not until around six months after the leak was detected that Cadbury Schweppes officially notified the Food Standards Agency, shortly after which it recalled more than a million chocolate bars. In December 2006, the company announced that the cost of dealing with the contamination would reach  £30 million. In April 2007, Birmingham City Council announced that it would be prosecuting Cadbury Schweppes in relation to three alleged offences of breaching food safety legislation. At that time, theHealth Protection Agency identified 31 people who had been infected with Salmonella Montevideo. One of the alleged victims had to be kept on a hospital isolation ward for five days after eating a Cadbury’s caramel bar. An investigation being carried out at that time by Herefordshire Council led to a further six charges being brought. The company pleaded guilty to all nine charges, and was fined one million pounds at Birmingham Crown Court—the sentencing of both cases was brought together.[70] Analysts have said the fine is not material to the group, with mitigating factors limiting the fine being that the company quickly admitted its guilt and said it had been mistaken that the infection did not pose a threat to health. Head office Cadbury’s head office is the Cadbury House in the Uxbridge Business Park in Uxbridge, London Borough of Hillingdon, England. The building occupies 84,000 square feet (7,800 m2) of space inside Building 3 of the business park. Cadbury, which leases space in the building it occupies, had relocated from central London to its current head office. Cadbury’s previous head office was in 25 Berkeley Square in Mayfair, City of Westminster. In 1992 the company leased the space for  £55 per 1 square foot (0.093 m2). In 2002 the company agreed to pay  £68.75 per square foot. The Daily Telegraph reported in 2007 that the rent was expected to increase to a â€Å"three-figure sum. † In 2007 Cadbury Schweppes had announced that it was moving to Uxbridge to cut costs. As of that year the head office had 200 employees. After the Kraft Foods acquisition of Cadbury, Kraft announced that the Cadbury head office would remain the â€Å"Cadbury House.† Mission statement of cadbury. Cadbury’s mission statement says simply: ‘Cadbury means quality’; this is our promise. Our reputation is built upon quality; our commitment to continuous improvement will ensure that our promise is delivered’ . Vision The Vision into action (VIA) plan embodies all aspects of our strategy. Our governing objective is to deliver superior shareowner returns by realizing our vision to be the world’s biggest and best confectionery company. At the heart of our plan is our financial scorecard, judiciously reinforced by our priorities, commitments and culture . Management information strategy. A management information system (MIS) provides information that organizations require to manage themselves efficiently and effectively.[1] Management information systems are typically computer systems used for managing five primary components: 1.) Hardware, 2.) Software, 3.) Data (information for decision making), 4.) Procedures (design,development and documentation), and 5.) People (individuals, groups, or organizations). Management information systems are distinct from other information systems, in that they are used to analyze and facilitate strategic and operational activities.[2] Academically, the term is commonly used to refer to the study of how individuals, groups, and organizations evaluate, design, implement, manage, and utilize systems to generate information to improve efficiency and effectiveness of decision making, including systems termed decision support systems, expert systems, and executive information systems.[2] Most business schools (or colleges of business administration within universities) have an MIS department, alongside departments of accounting, finance, management, marketing, and sometimes others, and grant degrees (at undergrad, masters, and PhD levels) in MIS. Characteristics of management information strategies Strategic information management is a salient feature in the world of information technology (IT). In a nutshell, strategic information management helps businesses and organizations categorize, store, process and transfer the information they create and receive. It also offers tools for helping companies apply metrics and analytical tools to their information repositories, allowing them to recognize opportunities for growth and pinpoint ways to improve operational efficiency. Automation IT professionals design strategic information management systems to automate the management of incoming and outgoing information to the greatest possible degree. While each company has its own unique IT needs, strategic information management systems typically include built-in controls that filter, sort, categorize and store information in easy-to-manage categories. Customization Strategic information management systems are typically customized to meet the unique needs of each individual company. Incoming and outgoing data can be sorted and cross-referenced according to a wide range of individually specified controls and parameters, which include the company’s business verticals and horizontals, individual clients, demographics, geographic location and business function. Strategic information management systems are extensively categorized, allowing for an optimal level of organization. Access controls can be as strict or as lax as the client wants, allowing for company-wide access to information databases or limiting information accessibility to key personnel. User-specific controls can also be set, in case employees need access to certain information but management wants to limit their access to sensitive data. Benefits The benefits of strategic information management can be felt from the executive level right down to the functional staff level. It can help businesses expand their operations into new areas, set goals, measure performance and improve overall productivity. Risks Some of the risks involved with strategic information management systems include implementation challenges, incompatibility with client databases and human error. As with other IT management techniques, data protection and information security is also an ongoing concern. Conclusion Cadbury is one of the best known brands in the world today. It is a brand which is associated with high levels of quality and customer satisfaction. The ongoing growth of Cafà © Cadbury provides a flagship that further helps to enhance the reputation of the Cadbury Masterbrand. At the same time, it provides customers with the opportunity to indulge themselves in the enjoyment of high quality products in a welcoming environment.