Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Marketing and Strategy Organizational Cultures

Question: Discuss about the Marketing and Strategy Organizational Cultures. Answer: Introduction In todays competitive world, definite marketing strategies, plans and procedures drive the growth of an organization taking into consideration multiple factors that govern the operation of the company. Marketing strategy refers to a plan of action improvised to promote or sell a product or particular service. The primary goal of marketing is to foster, generate and maintain mutually satisfying exchange relationship. Normally six fundamental processes steer the necessary changes in order to match the resources with the possible opportunities. They consist of development of scenarios, macro environmental analysis, customer analysis, industry and competitor analysis, internal analysis and ultimately development of strategic alternatives. Marketing strategy is normally derived from marketing research and put adequate emphasis upon the product mixing so as to procure the maximum benefits and profit out of the business thereby accounting for sustainability. The foundation for an effective marketing plan is provided by the marketing strategy. Generally all the marketing goals relevant to an organization are incorporated into one comprehensive plan. The framing of a strategic plan in the context of an organization is dependent upon certain pre-defined factors encompassing the mission, vision and strategic intent of the organization. Formulation of SMART objectives comprising of specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, targeted and timed variables and is perceived as other important goal pertaining to business promotion and expansion. An organizations current practices constitute the essential policies involving market penetration, market development, product development in conjunction with an additional step of diversification (Baker 2014). Product strategy simultaneously with marketing responsiveness under the impact of organic organizational structure is responsible for the firm performance in an emerging market. Different types of industry accounts for distinctiv e marketing responsiveness patterns thereby allowing provisions for a holistic outcome on matter related to the organizational functioning. Effective communication, interaction with the clients in addition to collaboration with suitable partners culminates in presenting case appropriate business strategies (Wei et al. 2014). Therefore in this respect, the business practices and strategies pursued by the reputed organization named ALDI discount supermarket chain will be discussed and critically analyzed. Core marketing theory may be utilized to evaluate the marketing related strategies. Background to the Company ALDI is a renowned supermarket operating in Germany as well as other nations of the European Union. ALDI stores are located in Australia and United States also. The name itself is suggestive of a common brand that accounts for two leading global discount supermarket chains having over 10,000 stores across 18 nations. The acronym ALDI implies Albrecht-Discount. The history of ALDI dates back to the year 1946 when Albrecht brothers Karl and Theo founded the company. A chain of multiple stores were set up by them until 1960, after which the company was split into two named ALDI Nord and ALDI Sd. Both the businesses have expanded in their own terms globally with the ALDI Sd operational in the United States with their own flagship stores. ALDI Nord is held responsible for owning the Trader Joes Chain possessing lesser stores than ALDI but having goodwill in the business industry. Today ALDI is a global name in the supermarket industry and has received several accolades for their outstandi ng achievements in the given industrial sector. The company holds distinguished business practices and policies that aim to steer more customers into the marketing framework and emphasizing upon customer loyalty to generate holistic outcomes. The company possesses their own distinctive business practices, in-store layout and advertising policies (news.com.au, 2017). The company is striving to be a socially responsible supermarket by means of adopting several strategies that cater to the necessities of the immediate environment. Currently, ALDI has cemented its position among the top ten retailers in the Australian region. The company has showcased immense responsibility towards the local community and those in need by means of focusing on three pivotal domains concerning the Health Nutrition, Children Youth and Disadvantaged People. The rapidly growing network of ALDI till date accounts for more than 7,000 stores catering to the needs of millions of people spread over three contin ents. ALDI is considered as a pioneer in terms of introducing the concept of self service as a novel retail structure. Their policies directly relate to the provision of high quality products at affordable prices and are continuing their endeavors to meet up to the expectations of the customers (corporate.aldi.com.au, 2017). Nature of ALDIs Marketing Strategy Over the years ALDI have engaged themselves onto serious client oriented policies that suffice the purpose of offering superior quality at incredibly low prices. In the Australian region, ALDI Australia is quite active in facilitating their promotional schemes and other business strategies in compliance with the maintenance of both qualities attributed to having exceptional values. Basically, the smarter ways to shop is presented by this franchise. Referring to the resources available for business it is evident that the extraction procedures for procuring the raw materials related to the production of the goods follows a sustainable pathway. The company aims to curtail the intensity of the resources of the products and ameliorate the negative environmental impacts relevant to their production. The vast expansion of ALDI in terms of providing numerous and varied products in countries across the globe, the sourcing of these products and their raw materials are carried out from the glob al market. Subsequently the people coming under the supply chain domain are taken care of by the company so as to allow ethical working condition at the sites of production facilities. The organization holds strong opinions regarding the issues of forced or child labor, workplace discrimination and vehemently oppose to these malpractices (aldi.com.au, 2017). The chief importance pertaining to the business of ALDI in Australia emphasize on the grocery retailing where commodities are available at lower prices compared to other grocers that render competitive advantages to the organization without compromising on the quality issue. Further regarding the promotional issue in Australia ALDI endeavors to stick to indigenous products thereby supporting the local Australian community comprising of the local farmers, manufacturers and producers. They make efforts to acquire the exclusive branded products from the Australian suppliers itself and resort to sourcing from overseas only when the product is lacking or unavailable in Australia. The simplified and easy working partnerships with ALDI result in efficiency and feasibility to the suppliers thereby allowing them to invest more time in their own business. The Australian manufacturers are benefited by their business policies to maintain the steady flow of money with the opportunities presented through bulk volume, timely and consistent orders. The recent calculated measures of expanding the company into South Australia and Western Australia have opened up many lucrative scopes for the local suppliers to indulge into collaborative work with them (aldi.com.au, 2017). Thus analyzing the business policies of ALDI it may be said that they operate emphasizing upon three core values of simplicity, consistency and responsibility. Thus these three pivotal concepts account for stark contrast in case of ALDI compared to other supermarket discount chains in generating supreme quality products for the valued customers through cus tomer friendly support systems and service facilities (Metzger 2014). Flexible return policies supported by manufacturers warranty for all products available at the ALDI stores coupled with goods coverage in compliance with the Australian Consumer Law further ensure the credibility of the company enhancing the trust of the consumers and contributing to customer loyalty to come back to its stores for future purchases. Hence the strategies adopted by the company over the years have contributed towards holistic expansion through careful address of the demands of its clients. Strategic Marketing Options for ALDI moving forward In all these years since its inception ALDI has earned a name for it and successfully carry forwarded its brand name in the global map. However to allow for sustainable business development, certain foresightedness and suitable marketing strategies are indispensable. The changing needs and demands of the customer need to be adequately addressed for the purpose of creating and capturing a strong customer base referring to their core values. In this regard ALDI may take initiative to partnership to allow for building customer relationships. A thorough understanding of the marketplace and the consumers is absolutely essential to carry out the business effectively through analysis of marketing behavior, management of marketing environment to acquire customer insights and understanding of consumer as well as business buyer attitude. A customer driven marketing strategy through value creation for the targeted clients is to be prepared emphasizing on products, services and brands. Launch of new products and constant innovation are other desirable changes that may fulfill the requisite criteria for success of the organization. Pricing should always be considered as a vital determinant for capturing the customer value. Advertising and public relations need to be strengthened to allow holistic outcomes by virtue of personal selling and sales promotion. Building on one-to-one relationship with the clients may be encouraged through application of the direct and digital marketing. Further extended marketing may be carried out through fulfillment of the corporate social responsibilities by means of abidance of the ethical and legal compliance (Armstrong et al. 2014). However the strategy adopted by ALDI has been found to be self limiting at certain instances as it is very much selective in expanding their business to territories that are not financially or economically viable. They look out for nations where returns for groceries are significantly higher than the global aver ages. Development of online based channels for ALDI to expand their business is a favorable option since online grocery sales are in vogue in many regions nowadays. The impressive business performance of ALDI in the Australian region may be attributed to the slow but organic growth of the family owned private company that did not have to pay attention for appeasement of the investors. Attention is to be given to all kinds of customer and belonging to different strata of the society to gain optimum benefits out of the process (economist.com, 2017). The limited assortment/low price format of the company must be reevaluated and modified so that requisite results may be procured from adopting the format without having the threats of competition from other food retailer companies who are trying to capture the market. Moreover, in an effort to catch up with the changing trends and demands of modern times, ALDI should diversify their available products to reach up to a larger audience ther eby offering scopes for expansion within a given territory. The discounts that are offered to the customers must be greater than the competitors without compromising on the quality issue (Patton 2017). Therefore to stay ahead of other in the supermarket discount chain industry, ALDI must resort to continuous efforts to upgrade their facilities from traditional services. Conclusion The market analysis relevant to a specific organization must conform to the marketing goals pertaining to the concerned organization. In the context of the ALDI organization, the reputed discount supermarket chain operating in a large scale across many countries in the world has been discussed. Reviewing to their existing marketing strategies and key emphasis being laid upon offering quality food products at affordable prices supported by effective working coalition with the local community of producers, manufacturers and suppliers it may be said that these initiatives are direct determinants of success for the company. However in the long run certain other insightful strategies are recommended on their part to stay ahead of others and engage in a sustainable business. Core concepts of marketing such as effective communication with the clients, suitable marketing analysis in addition to emphasizing upon effective collaboration with suitable partners need to be attended to for harbori ng holistic outcomes. References Aldi.com.au, 2017. ALDI Initiatives - ALDI Australia. [online] Aldi.com.au. Available at: https://www.aldi.com.au/en/about-aldi/aldi-initiatives/ [Accessed 22 Jan. 2017]. Aldi.com.au, 2017. Australian Made - ALDI Australia. [online] Aldi.com.au. Available at: https://www.aldi.com.au/en/about-aldi/australian-made/ [Accessed 22 Jan. 2017]. Armstrong, G., Adam, S., Denize, S. and Kotler, P., 2014.Principles of marketing. Pearson Australia. Baker, M.J., 2014.Marketing strategy and management. Palgrave Macmillan. Corporate.aldi.com.au, 2017. ALDI History - ALDI Australia. [online] Corporate.aldi.com.au. Available at: https://corporate.aldi.com.au/en/about-aldi/aldi-history/ [Accessed 22 Jan. 2017]. Economist.com, 2017. Tomorrow, not quite the world. [online] The Economist. Available at: https://www.economist.com/news/business/21646224-german-discounters-successful-business-model-only-stretches-so-far-tomorrow-not-quite [Accessed 22 Jan. 2017]. Metzger, K., 2014. International Management Analysis of ALDI. News.com.au, 2017. Why do Australians love Aldi? The secrets to the supermarkets phenomenal success. [online] Available at: https://www.news.com.au/lifestyle/food/why-do-australians-love-aldi-the-secrets-to-the-supermarkets-phenomenal-success/news-story/ [Accessed 24 Jan. 2017]. Patton, M. 2017. Aldi Tries High-End Food and Discounts, Too. [online] Bloomberg.com. Available at: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015-08-06/aldi-grocery-chain-tries-high-end-food-and-discounts-too [Accessed 22 Jan. 2017]. Wei, Y.S., Samiee, S. and Lee, R.P., 2014. The influence of organic organizational cultures, market responsiveness, and product strategy on firm performance in an emerging market.Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science,42(1), pp.49-70.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

The Global Problem in Syria

Table of Contents Introduction Causes of the Syrian Political Upheavals Effect of the Protests Mitigation Measures Foreign Involvement Conclusion Works Cited Introduction Syria, a nation in the southwest Asia, has encountered several key challenges in the recent past. In the wake of 26 January 2011, Syria experienced its initial demonstration, where a civilian lynched himself, protesting against the current regime.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The Global Problem in Syria specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Afterwards, the nation has experienced continued adverse political upheavals, thereby creating numerous adversities to the population of the country. This was sparked by the wave of the Arab Spring, where various rebels protested for change, with many politicians ousting their government positions (Ziser 69). Therefore, Syria has followed suit, bringing massive protests within the nation. This has led to severe property damages and loss of lives. As a result, the Syrian government faces criticism from the global community due to the violence that the government metes to protesters, with various nations and world organizations intervening. Therefore, this manuscript will look into the challenges the country is facing, and measures to implement in order to alleviate these challenges. Causes of the Syrian Political Upheavals The protesters claim to have grown tired of the 5-decade tyrannical rule of al-Assad. As a result, they have resorted to numerous revolts, in an effort to eject the leader, with several cities being blockaded within the nation (Coll). Moreover, various organized groups are resolute to end the reign and bring in democracy to Syria. Furthermore, social network sites have aided significantly in the spread of the protests, since it has offered a cheap communication medium. Besides, ethnic clashes among various communities such the Kurds and the Arabs have height ened the civil upheavals (Coll). The nation faces racial tension due to the diversity of the inhabiting communities that include the Arabs and Jews among others. Moreover, the minority groups such as the Alawi face prejudice from other dominant communities. Besides, the media reported of a Kurd activist, who was found lifeless, with signs of torture on his remains. This sparked protests in the nation, with the protestors seeking justice. These upheavals may also have resulted from the various social-economic factors. Before the political crisis, the nation faced severe unemployment challenges. This resulted from the drought that affected agricultural activities within the nation. Agriculture has extreme significance in the nation, since it provides employment for nearly 20% of the population. Monopolies have also posed a grave threat to the Syrian economy, with the small-scale merchants resorting to the low-income trades. Moreover, Syria oil proceeds have drastically reduced, and th is has compelled the government to slash its budget and increase taxes. This poses a heavy burden to the citizens, since they do not receive numerous essential social services, and hence the outburst of the protests.Advertising Looking for research paper on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The protests also had a significant foreign influence. Egypt and Tunisia instigated the Arab Spring. This spread to other Arabian nations, including Libya and Morocco, among others. As a result, Syria also initiated the protests in their state, since they faced similar challenges. Besides, reports indicated that some of the protestors received support from external militant groups such as Hezbollah and Al Qaeda. This posed a solemn dilemma to peace, since they also provided weapons to the protesting groups. Effect of the Protests The Syria upheavals have brought devastating effects to the inhabitants of the nation in various ways. The demonstrations have been extremely violent, leading to serious losses of property and life. Moreover, the army set out to restrain the protestors has been violent, leading to the heightened death toll (De Young). Moreover, statistics show that nearly 10 000 lives have been lost because of the protracted conflicts between the government and the insurgents. In addition, the conflicts have adversely affected the Syrian financial status. Most businesses do not open in fear of attacks, and inhabitants are not going to work since they continually partake in the demonstrations. This has led to the closing down of numerous trade premises within the country. As a result, people lack various essential amenities, thereby lowering their living standards. Besides, many people have lost employment, owing to the protests, thus heightening the already worse situation. Besides, the nation has broken numerous internal relations with many countries because of the ongoing protests. This has led to negative impacts on the international trade of the country, thereby increasing the economic burden to the government and the people. In addition, various western nations have implemented sanctions on the country, thus affecting trade in the country (Vltchek). Moreover, the conflicts discourage foreign investors from venturing into the country, owing to the threat of property loss in the country. Besides, critics argue that social network sites should be abolished in the nation. However, this will only heighten the already severe situation. As such there ought to be freedom of communication. This will reduce people’s tension and hence reduce the bloodshed and property loss. In addition, the continuity of the crises has not only been a challenge of Syria, but it has grown into key world concern. The discrimination of the Kurds has led to the intervention of the Israelis. As a result, countries such as Iran have also intervened to aid Syria. Moreover, nations such as China and the US have intervened to mitigate on the excessive force that the deployed army mete to the protesters (De Young). These countries have dissimilar approaches and policies to curb these conflicts, leading to break-ups among them. Mitigation Measures There is a serious need for mitigation measures to alleviate the current upheavals. Besides, report shows that the global societies are concerned with these disputes, and have criticized the country for policies that the government applies in order to curb the crime. Recently, the government guaranteed to stop the army from using excessive force and use diplomacy in controlling the protestors (De Young).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on The Global Problem in Syria specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More However, various human rights bodies claim that the government still applies unwarranted force in restraining the demonstrators. As such, foreign human rights bodies ought to intervene, and thereby aid in eradicating people’s anguish. President Bashar ought to step aside, in order to allow arbitration talks to take place. A recent survey showed that the majority of Syrian civilians want him to bow out, and allow unsullied democratic elections to take place. As such, they ought to implement the multiparty system within the nation. Moreover, the worldwide community keeps on pressurizing the leader to resign, through the implementation of various sanctions in the country. This will end the long-standing tyrannical rule, and thereby pave way for democracy that the citizens have desired for a long time. Moreover, introduction of social equality will help in economic recuperation, since foreign will feel secure while investing in Syria. Additionally, the government ought to release the detainees incarcerated during the long-standing violence and take away the army-groups from major cities. Moreover, the government should allow foreign monitors to evaluate the situation, and thereby come with recommendations that alleviate the crisis (Kelley 59). This will result in demonstrators seceding the violence, and thereby help in restoration of serenity. Besides, there ought to be a meticulous transformation in the administration, and incorporate various minority groups such as the Alawi and the Kurds within the administration (Ziser 69). This will serve to alleviate ethnic favoritism that the country currently experiences. This will allow equal representation of all the communities in the administration, and thereby eliminate the long-standing Sunni dominance. It is also evident that Israel intervened in these conflicts because of the Druze. As such, there should be a peace accord among them, in an endeavor to protect the Druze. Besides, some countries have heightened the conflicts by taking sides. Moreover, a recent review confirmed that some nations such as Turkey supported the Sunni community, while Iraq supported the Alawis. The international community ought to intercede and discourage these nations for this form of bias. Foreign Involvement The global community has been actively involved in this war in diverse ways. Some nations, especially the western countries have implicated themselves directly, an attempt to cease the protests (Vltchek). This has been through various sanctions such as freezing the country’s foreign bank. Moreover, they denounce the current government for its approach in stopping the infighting. Ceasing the conflicts in Syria will lead to the removal of such sanctions.Advertising Looking for research paper on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Additionally, various global bodies such as the UN have attempted to apply diverse forms of diplomacy in reducing the upheavals. Besides, they have sent experts to monitor the condition, and thus come with recommendation that Syria may implement and stop the conflicts (Kelley 59). However, critics argue that these countries ought to halt the interventions, and should let Syria solve its predicaments internally (Vltchek). Moreover, some critics claim that these countries have additional veiled interests in the country. In my opinion, this is untrue, since these countries only intervene to promote democracy and reduce the looming collapse of the nation. Besides, some nations act in a way that intensifies the upheavals. For instance, a recent report indicated that Russia sold armaments that cost about 1 billion dollars to Syria. This only served to amplify bloodshed in the nation. Moreover, nations such as Turkey and Iraq expressed bias in the conflicts by supporting dissimilar sides o f the protests. These nations ought to cease worsening the war, since this may lead to the ultimate collapse of the nation. Various world bodies ought to intervene, since this will aid in disarming the demonstrators, thereby help calming the protests. Conclusion Syria has faced serious political upheavals in the past resulting to severe property damages and life losses. Moreover, conflicts between protestors have led to negative impacts such economic slump. Unemployment and tax increase are some of the major causes of the turmoil. Besides, politics has played a key role in intensifying the mayhem. The citizens want to eliminate al-Assad’s rule and introduce democracy in the nation. Besides, the global community has denounced these upheavals due to carnages experienced in the nation and has attempted to intervene. However, critics disapprove their arbitration. Some nations have also aided in intensifying the turmoil by supplying funds and armaments to the protestors. The natio n ought to implement the necessary measures, in an endeavor to halt the turmoil and return peace, as well as tranquility. Works Cited Coll, Steve. The Syrian Problem. The New Yorker, 30 May 2011. Web. De Young, Karen. Talk of military aid rises as hopes fade for peaceful Syria solution. Washington Post, 11 March 2012. Web. Kelley, Judith. Monitoring democracy: when international election observation works, and why it often fails. Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2012. Print. Vltchek, Andre. Is west genuinely trying to ‘save’ Syria? People’s Daily, 21 February 2012. Web. Ziser, Eyal. Asad’s legacy: Syria in transition. London: C. Hurst Co. Publishers, 2001. Print. This research paper on The Global Problem in Syria was written and submitted by user Dar1us to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Commanding Heights The documentary was split into 23 chapters of which we only covered up to chapter 18. The beginning of the documentary focused on the Global Idea.

Commanding Heights The documentary was split into 23 chapters of which we only covered up to chapter 18. The beginning of the documentary focused on the Global Idea. Commanding HeightsThe documentary was split into 23 chapters of which we only covered up to chapter 18. The beginning of the documentary focused on the Global Idea. The way the world worked was changing and we as humanity had to find a way to adapt to this new way of life. It was 1992 and America's economy was adrift. Governor Clinton was campaigning for presidency with hopes to turn the economy around. Clinton won the candidacy and quickly went to America's head economist to create an agenda to have America catch up with the rate the world was now moving. The economist were in large favor for NAFTA, of which Clinton would latter approve despite his siding against it in his campaigns prior to his being elected. In doing this Clinton was betraying the American labor union as now their jobs would be sucked out of America and sent across the world to places where labor was a fraction of the cost.United StatesWith the crossing of borders now in affect American investments poured into the poor nations of the world like Mexico, Thailand, China etc... This created a boom in the American market however many Americans lost their jobs to people thousands a miles away from where they lived. Now the American labor union was in competition with people who worked for pennies; there was basically no competition as there was no way they would be able to compete with that. This caused an up roar in America; however, it increased the level of living standards in the poor nations around the world by creating jobs for them. This crossing of boarders thus created a Global Market that caused trade to go invisible. The Market was now becoming who we are. It was pushing people to perform at levels...

Saturday, November 23, 2019

Literacy Assessment Assessment Summary Chart

Literacy Assessment Assessment Summary Chart Outline Assessment Summary Chart Appropriateness of assessment tools for reporting progress, diagnosing reading skills, or providing outcome data The effectiveness of usage in groups or individually Assessment Summary Chart Assessment Tools Progress Diagnostic Outcome Individual or Group Assessment Additional Explanation of Use IRI X X I IRI are used with individual students to assess the progress and diagnose the development of definite reading skills Retelling X X I/G Retelling is used with individuals as the oral variant of the assessment and within a group as a written variant Running Record X X I Running records are used with individual students to assess the progress and diagnose the development of definite reading skills Observations X I/G The usage in a group or with an individual depends on a purpose Fluency Assessment X X I The assessment is recommended for progress monitoring of the students’ fluency and as a general outcome assessment for indiv iduals Phonics Test X X I Are effective for assessing and diagnosing individuals Reading Logs X I/G The usage in a group or with an individual depends on a purpose Phonemic Awareness Assessment X X I Are effective for assessing and diagnosing individuals Rubric X G Are based on standards and criteria Portfolio X X I/G The category depends on the type of portfolio Appropriateness of assessment tools for reporting progress, diagnosing reading skills, or providing outcome data Informal reading inventories (IRI) and running records are effective to monitor the students’ progress in reading, paying attention to the specifics of word-recognition (Gunning, 2010, p. 77). IRI and running records help determine the changes in reading with references to the number and character of miscues made by students.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Literacy Assessment: Assessment Summary Chart specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Lea rn More That is why, the results of IRI and running records are important to focus on the students’ progress while reading. These assessment tools can be also used by the teacher to diagnose the level of the skills’ development to implement strategies which can help students overcome difficulties in reading and achieve higher results. Retelling is effective when it helps determine the students’ progress in comprehension and in grasping the main idea of the text. The progress is marked with references to the number and character of details which are reproduced by students while retelling. Retelling is also effective to diagnose the development of the students’ skills, orienting to their further improvement basing on the diagnostic results. The level of the students’ understanding phonics and of the phonemic awareness is constantly changing that is why phonics tests and phonemic awareness assessments are necessary to monitor the general stude nts’ progress and for the additional diagnosis of the individual students’ abilities to distinguish sounds or work with phonemes to receive the ability to develop and improve definite skills. Observations are used as progress monitoring tools to watch the changes in the students’ development of literacy skills, and they provide the general picture of the students’ skills, interests, typical miscues, behaviors, techniques, strengths, and weaknesses. Reading logs are effective tools for the students’ self-evaluation. The regular character of completing the assessment provides the teacher with opportunities to monitor the students’ progress in reading more difficult books, changes in reading interests and reactions, and involvement with reading. Portfolio is the specific assessment tool which can be used both for monitoring the progress and assessing the outcomes, depending on the type of the portfolio. For instance, the process portfolios are effective to monitor the progress with references to the levels of the materials used and competency in completing the portfolio which can change during the definite period. The evaluation portfolios are necessary to assess the students’ results with references to the definite standardized samples used, and these portfolios are used as outcome assessment tools.Advertising Looking for essay on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Fluency assessment is important to monitor the students’ progress in pace of reading or reading more letters and words (indicators of proficiency). Thus, it is used as the progress assessment tool. Fluency assessment is also standardized and based on benchmarks, and it uses fixed criteria to assess outcomes. From this perspective, it is a general outcome assessment (Gunning, 2010, p. 77). Rubrics also belong to the outcome category because they focus on â€Å"what is expe cted from students in order for them to meet a certain level of performance† (Gunning, 2010, p. 86). Rubrics are necessary to assess the students’ results and compare them with definite standards adopted within certain institutions or states. Thus, rubrics provide evaluative criteria and information about students’ outcomes. The effectiveness of usage in groups or individually IRI, running records, phonics tests, and phonemic awareness assessment can be used to assess only individuals because the teacher should focus on reading or sound recognition presenting by one student at a time to take notes, to fix possible miscues, to concentrate on the individual skills which need to be developed or improved. Fluency assessment is also effective when it is realized individually to pay attention to the students’ definite competencies to make conclusions about the level of performance. Rubrics can be used in a group of students to assess and compare their performanc e in relation to the definite criteria and standards presented in the rubric. Retelling as the assessment tool should be used with individual students when retelling is oral, and retelling can be used within the group of students when it is the written assessment. Observations can be both individual and group, depending on the task of the assessment determined by the teacher before starting the observation of an individual or a group of students (Paratore McCormack, 2007). The usage of reading logs in a group or with an individual depends on a purpose to receive the information about an individual’s progress and interests or the group’s progress in reading at a time. Portfolios are effective as the tools to assess the individual progress of a student, but they can be also used to assess the work basing on the group when portfolio conferences are conducted. References Gunning, T. (2010). Creating literacy instruction for all students. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon/Pearso n Education.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Literacy Assessment: Assessment Summary Chart specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Paratore, J., McCormack, R. (2007). Classroom literacy assessment: Making sense of what students know and do. USA: Guilford Press.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Cash and Working Capital Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Cash and Working Capital - Essay Example These four phases consist of the following management requirements; cash management which is identifying the cash balance available to run the day to day expenses of the business or firm so as to reduce the cash holding costs (Padachi, 2012). Inventory management is identifying the inventory levels that will enable the business to run smoothly without investment in raw materials. This requires the lead times being lowered to reduce Work in Process (WIP) and the finished goods should also be kept as low as possible. This will lead to the reduction of the reordering costs and hence increase cash flow. Debtor’s management this requires identifying the best credit mechanism for the business or the firm. The credit mechanism chosen should be able to attract customers to the firm and also make sure the firm is getting the payments on time from the credit customers. This will be optimized by increasing the revenue thus increasing the Return on Capital. Another aspect of working capit al management is the Short term financing, it is achieved by identifying the most appropriate source of short term funds to run the business this can be achieved through credit granted by the supplier. It may also be necessary to use a bank loan or an overdraft (Banos-Caballera, 2010). The working capital cycle phases require short-term decisions. ... This normally refers to the time which the firm’s money is tied up in operations and therefore working capital phase normally aims at making sure the time is as short as possible (Block-Hirt, 2008). The primary sources of short term funds Short term funds refer to money needed to run the company in a period of less than a year. They are normally used for the day to day running of the business or firm. There are a number of short term funds available to a company which require different levels of interest rate expenses, collateral and personal guarantees. This is required to provide working capital. The short term funds are used for purchasing of raw materials or finished inventories, payment of wages, salaries and other short term expenses (Brealey, 2002). The three primary sources of short term finance include trade credit, which is normally gotten from the suppliers. It is a loan in the form of goods and inventory. The credit time period is normally 15 days to 3 months and t his is normally granted on the basis of good will of the purchaser. This credit facility is given buy a supplier to the buyer of goods and by a whole seller to a retailer. When the time limit is reached the credit should be paid lack of payment can lead to seizing of the goods in the inventory (Block-Hirt, 2008). Another major source of short term loans and advances is from the commercial banks. This are mainly in the form of bank overdraft from the bank which the business has an account in. the overdraft allows the business to withdraw from its current account exceeding the available cash balance. The business is charged an interest rate that is based on the amount overdrawn and the length of time overdrawn (Cleverley, 2011). The advantage of

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

What I hope to gain from the MPA program at Metropolitan College of Essay

What I hope to gain from the MPA program at Metropolitan College of New York - Essay Example My work as a Counselor, Case Manager and Housing Specialist at organizations such as Help USA and Women In Need, has been deeply satisfying. My experience with the homeless has made me aware that there is a tremendous reserve of goodwill and monetary aid available in society, from both government and private sources, which can be directed towards the betterment of the economically underprivileged. It is the tragedy of our times that the full potential of these programs fails to reach the intended target, mainly because of poor implementation. This makes me determined to enhance my skills in leadership, management, marketing, finance and planning, so that I can significantly enhance my contribution to an organization, and become a more effective catalyst of constructive change. After more than a decade’s experience in the not-for-profit sector, the MPA Program at Metropolitan College of New York seems to be tailor-made for me! The program’s emphasis on policy research and implementation, strategic planning and analysis of financial costs, is just what I require to gain the theoretical knowledge which I can translate into practical organizational change at my workplace. I believe that my personal strengths, which include my love for working with people, my persuasive skills, assertiveness, and readiness to articulate problems, combined with the applied learning I gain from Metropolitan College of New York, will help me realize my goal of playing a part in the betterment of society. I am also confident that my twelve years as a working professional in the not-for-profit sector will be an asset to the classroom experience of my peers, and enable me to contribute positively to Metropolitan

Sunday, November 17, 2019

A Happy University Essay Example for Free

A Happy University Essay A happy university is enjoyable and interesting place to study. Students feel that they belong to a community and are offered supports from the Student Assistance Center of the university. The university is well-designed and there are many good facilities. A happy campus also has many interesting and exciting places for recreation. Students in happy campus have good behavior. Although they come from different background, they are able to respect each other and share ideas. They also help other students to overcome issues about study or life. Especially freshmen who have just started their term at the university, they are taught life skills and get assistances from the Student Assistance Center to be familiar with new life and environment. In addition there are many opportunities for students to take part in community or social events, and do part-time jobs to earn money to buy books or equipment for study. Good facilities is one of the factors that cannot be missing in a happy campus. There are areas for study and a library with internet connection and an enormous amount of books that are always revised. It also has large lecture rooms, laboratories, a medical center. These laboratories are designed specifically base on different specialties. In addition, there is a big smart parking basement that helps students to easily and quickly keep or take their bikes or cars. Moreover, the university has high standard of teaching with modern resources and equipment. Students is easy to move around the campus because the footpaths and connecting bridges are well-organized. After spending long period of time for study or research, students cannot avoid suffering from fatigue or mental illnesses such as tiredness, depression, insomnia. Therefore they need to refresh their soul or stay mentally healthy. So many places for recreation are built up because of that purpose. There are many green fields such as parks, gardens, small hills on the bank of rivers and sporting fields such as football grounds, swimming pools, basketball courts, golf courses, F1 circuits. Students can spend their free time in these areas or in fitness center, spas or yoga. Besides sports or exercises, they can also take part in extracurricular activities depend on their hobbies such as singing, dancing, drawing or writing for the university newspaper. On weekends, they can gather at a nightclub that has performances of famous DJs and singers such as Tiesto, David Guetta, Justin Timberlake, Rihanna. However, the nightclub is only celebrated on special event. Additionally,  students can join groups which organize debates, meetings and holiday trips. Finally, in memory of people who have studied at a happy university that are unforgettable days and experiences. They are also proud of being students of a happy university.